Experimental Study on the Wear of Liner in Tumbling Mill under Dry and Wet Conditions

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran


Lifters/liners worn in tumbling mill and consequently their dimensions change during the course of operation. These changes in dimensions have a significant influence on the overall economic performance of the mills. In this project, the influences of slurry filling and slurry concentration on the wear of lifters were investigated using a pilot mill of 1m diameter and 0.5m length. Copper ore with a size smaller than one inch was used to prepare slurry at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% solids concentration of mass. The tests covered a range of slurry filling from 0.5 to 2.5 with ball filling at 20% and mill speeds at 75%. The mill grinding mechanism in this pilot mill is a combination of both impact and abrasion mechanisms. It was found that the lifters’ wear rises with the increase of feed filling in the mill under dry conditions. During the wet condition, when there is an increase in the slurry filling and slurry concentration, the wear decreases. In wet grinding, the relative velocity between the materials and the lifters is more than in the dry mode and the wear is 1.5–3 times greater than in the dry condition.


Main Subjects

[1] B. Wills, T. Napier–Munn, Mineral Processing Technology, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, PP108-117,  (2006) 267-352.
[2] Y. Ali, C. Garcia-Mendoza, J. Gates, Effects of ‘impact’and abrasive particle size on the performance of white cast irons relative to low-alloy steels in laboratory ball mills, Wear, 426 (2019) 83-100.
[3] A. Abbasi, S. Amini, G. Sheikhzadeh, Investigation of the Wear Behavior of Graphite Steel (GSH48) in Ultrasonic Peening Process, Amirkabir Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 50(3) (2018) 529-540.
[4] P. Fazio, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Wear and Erosion; Metal Corrosion, ASTM G102-89. Standard Practice for Calculation of Corrosion Rates and Related Information from Electrochemical Measurements, ASTM, Philadelphia,  (2004).
[5] M. Soleymani, M. Fooladi Mahani, M. Rezaeizadeh, Experimental study the impact forces of tumbling mills, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 231(2) (2017) 283-293.
[6] P. Radziszewski, S. Tarasiewicz, Modelling and simulation of ball mill wear, Wear, 160(2) (1993) 309-316.
[7] P. Radziszewski, S. Tarasiewicz, Simulation of ball charge and liner wear, Wear, 169(1) (1993) 77-85.
[8] P.W. Cleary, Predicting charge motion, power draw, segregation and wear in ball mills using discrete element methods, Minerals Engineering, 11(11) (1998) 1061-1080.
[9] J. Kalala, M. Bwalya, M. Moys, Discrete element method (DEM) modelling of evolving mill liner profiles due to wear. Part II. Industrial case study, Minerals Engineering, 18(15) (2005) 1392-1397.
[10] S. Banisi, M. Hadizadeh, 3-D liner wear profile measurement and analysis in industrial SAG mills, Minerals Engineering, 20(2) (2007) 132-139.
[11] M. Yahyaei, S. Banisi, Spreadsheet-based modeling of liner wear impact on charge motion in tumbling mills, Minerals Engineering, 23(15) (2010) 1213-1219.
[12] M. Rezaeizadeh, M. Fooladi, M. Powell, S. Mansouri, N. Weerasekara, A new predictive model of lifter bar wear in mills, Minerals Engineering, 23(15) (2010) 1174-1181.
[13] M. Rezaeizadeh, M. Fooladi, M. Powell, N. Weerasekara, An experimental investigation of the effects of operating parameters on the wear of lifters in tumbling mills, Minerals Engineering, 23(7) (2010) 558-562.
[14] P. Radziszewski, Ball charge dynamics and liner wear simulation, in:  Canadian Mineral Processors Conference, 1997.
[15] P. Radziszewski, R. Varadi, T. Chenje, L. Santella, A. Sciannamblo, Tumbling mill steel media abrasion wear test development, Minerals Engineering, 18(3) (2005) 333-341.
[16] R. Hebbar, Investigation on grinding wear behaviour of austempered ductile iron as media material during comminution of iron ore in ball mills, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 64(3) (2011) 265-269.
[17] M.M. Mourad, S. El-Hadad, M.M. Ibrahim, Effects of molybdenum addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ni-hard white cast iron, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 68(5) (2015) 715-722.
[18] H. Hatami, A. Fathollahi, Theoretical and numerical study and comparison of the inertia effects on the collapse behavior of expanded metal tube absorber with single and double cell under impact loading, AUT J Mech Eng, 50 (2018) 999-1014.
[19] H. Hatami, M. Shariati, Numerical and experimental investigation of SS304L cylindrical shell with cutout under uniaxial cyclic loading, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, 43(2) (2019) 139-153.
[20] A.G. Jahromi, H. Hatami, Numerical behavior study of expanded metal tube absorbers and effect of cross section size and multi-layer under low axial velocity impact loading, AUT J Mech Eng, 49 (2018) 685-696.
[21] M. Mohammadi Soleymani, M. Fooladi Mahani, M. Rezaeizadeh, M. Bahiraie, Experimental study of mill speed, charge filling, slurry concentration, and slurry filling on the wear of lifters in tumbling mills, Modares Mechanical Engineering, 15(4) (2015) 265-271.
[22] L. Austin, R. Klimpel, P. Luckie, Process engineering of size reduction: ball milling, Soc, Min. Eng. AIME, New York, NY,  (1984) 112-113.
[23] M. Akhondizadeh, M. Rezaeizadeh, Effect of specimen size and ball size on breakage throughput in the drop-weight test, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 233(2) (2019) 202-210.
[24] M. Razani, A. Masoumi, M. Rezaeizadeh, M. Noaparast, Prediction model to estimate the specific energy and product particle size distribution of semi-autogenous mill, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 233(2) (2019) 306-313.
[25] M. Soleymani, M. Fooladi, M. Rezaeizadeh, Effect of slurry pool formation on the load orientation, power draw, and impact force in tumbling mills, Powder Technology, 287 (2016) 160-168.