Experimental Study based Graphene Oxide Nanoplatelets Nanofluid Used in Domestic Application on the Performance of DASCs with Indirect Circulation Systems

Document Type : Research Article


1 Young Researchers’ Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanics Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Electrical and Mechanical Installations Department, Building and Construction Research Institute, Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center, Tehran, Iran

4 School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Since the solar energy is from the most well-known and important sources of clean energies, the solutions to absorb solar energy play significant role in the effectiveness of thermal collector system. The present study aims to investigate the experimental analysis of solar volume collector’s performance for usage in domestic solar water heater and using graphene oxide nanoplatelets nanofluid based deionized water. The weight percentage of graphene oxide/deionized water has been chosen with the percentages of 0.005, 0.015 and 0.045, respectively. The used collector has been tested according to the standard of EN 12975-2 in different temperatures of inlet fluid and in flow rates of 0.0075, 0.015 and 0.225 kg/s. The results of this experiment determine that with the increase of nanofluid’s weight percentage, the collector efficiency is increased and collector efficiency in its highest level in the flow rate of 0.015kg/s and in the weight percentages of 0.005, 0.015 and 0.045 are 63.28, 72.59 and 75.07 respectively, which this amount for the base fluid is 58/25. 


Main Subjects

[1] G. Coccia, G. Di Nicola, L. Colla, L. Fedele, M.J.E.C. Scattolini, Management, Adoption of nanofluids in low-enthalpy parabolic trough solar collectors: numerical  simulation of the yearly yield, 118 (2016) 306-319.
[2] Z. Said, M. Sabiha, R. Saidur, A. Hepbasli, N. Rahim, S. Mekhilef, T.J.J.o.C.P. Ward, Performance enhancement of a flat plate solar collector using titanium dioxide nanofluid and polyethylene glycol dispersant, 92 (2015) 343-353.
[3] V. Drosou, P. Kosmopoulos, A.J.R.E. Papadopoulos, Solar cooling system using concentrating collectors for office buildings: A case study for Greece, 97 (2016) 697-708.
[4] M. Karamali, M.J.R.E. Khodabandeh, A distributed solar collector field temperature profile control and estimation using inlet oil temperature and radiation estimates based on Iterative Extended Kalman Filter, 101 (2017) 144- 155.
[5] Z. Said, R. Saidur, N.J.J.o.C.P. Rahim, Energy and exergy analysis of a flat plate solar collector using different sizes of aluminium oxide based nanofluid, 133 (2016) 518-530.
[6] M. Nemś, J.J.R.E. Kasperski, Experimental investigation of concentrated solar air-heater with internal multiple-fin array, 97 (2016) 722-730.
[7] J.A. Duffie, W.A. Beckman, Solar engineering of thermal processes, John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
[8] J. Ji, J.-P. Lu, T.-T. Chow, W. He, G.J.A.E. Pei, A sensitivity study of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal water-heating system with natural circulation, 84(2) (2007) 222-237.
[9] P.V.J.T.J.o.P.C.C. Kamat, Meeting the clean energy demand: nanostructure architectures for solar energy conversion, 111(7) (2007) 2834-2860.
[10] T.P. Otanicar, J.S.J.E.s. Golden, technology, Comparative environmental and economic analysis of conventional and nanofluid solar hot water technologies, 43(15) (2009) 6082-6087.
[11] W. Minkowycz, E.M. Sparrow, J.P. Abraham, Nanoparticle heat transfer and fluid flow, CRC press, 2016.
[12] S.K. Das, S.U. Choi, W. Yu, T. Pradeep, Nanofluids: science and technology, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[13] A. Beheshti, M. Shanbedi, S.Z.J.J.o.T.A. Heris, Calorimetry, Heat transfer and rheological properties of transformer oil-oxidized MWCNT nanofluid, 118(3) (2014) 1451-1460.
[14] M. Mehrali, E. Sadeghinezhad, S.T. Latibari, S.N. Kazi, M. Mehrali, M.N.B.M. Zubir, H.S.C.J.N.r.l. Metselaar, Investigation of thermal conductivity and rheological properties of nanofluids containing graphene nanoplatelets, 9(1) (2014) 15.
[15] R. Mohebbi, M.J.J.o.t.T.I.o.C.E. Rashidi, Numerical simulation of natural convection heat transfer of a nanofluid in an L-shaped enclosure with a heating obstacle, 72 (2017) 70-84.
[16] R. Mohebbi, M. Rashidi, M. Izadi, N.A.C. Sidik, H.W.J.I.J.o.H. Xian, M. Transfer, Forced convection of nanofluids in an extended surfaces channel using lattice Boltzmann method, 117 (2018) 1291-1303.
[17] M. Izadi, R. Mohebbi, D. Karimi, M.A.J.C.E. Sheremet, P.-P. Intensification, Numerical simulation of natural convection heat transfer inside a┴ shaped cavity filled by a MWCNT-Fe3O4/water hybrid nanofluids using LBM, 125 (2018) 56-66.
[18] T.P. Otanicar, P.E. Phelan, R.S. Prasher, G. Rosengarten, R.A.J.J.o.r. Taylor, s. energy, Nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector, 2(3) (2010) 033102.
[19] R.A. Taylor, P.E. Phelan, T.P. Otanicar, R. Adrian, R.J.N.r.l. Prasher, Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors, 6(1) (2011) 225.
[20] R. Mohebbi, M. Nazari, M.J.J.o.A.M. Kayhani, T. Physics, Comparative study of forced convection of a power-law fluid in a channel with a built-in square cylinder, 57(1) (2016) 55-68.
[21] R. Mohebbi, H.J.I.J.o.M.P.C. Heidari, Lattice Boltzmann simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a parallel-plate channel with transverse rectangular cavities, 28(03) (2017) 1750042.
[22] R. Mohebbi, H. Lakzayi, N.A.C. Sidik, W.M.A.A.J.I.J.o.H. Japar, M. Transfer, Lattice Boltzmann method based study of the heat transfer augmentation associated with Cu/water nanofluid in a channel with surface mounted blocks, 117 (2018) 425-435.
[23] R. Mohebbi, M. Izadi, A.J.J.P.o.F. Chamkha, Heat source location and natural convection in a C-shaped enclosure saturated by a nanofluid, 29(12) (2017) 122009.
[24] Y. Ma, R. Mohebbi, M. Rashidi, Z.J.P.o.F. Yang, Study of nanofluid forced convection heat transfer in a bent channel by means of lattice Boltzmann method, 30(3) (2018) 032001.
[25] Y. Ma, R. Mohebbi, M. Rashidi, Z.J.I.J.o.M.P.C. Yang, Numerical simulation of flow over a square cylinder with upstream and downstream circular bar using lattice Boltzmann method, 29(04) (2018) 1850030.
[26] L. Mu, Q. Zhu, L. Si, Radiative properties of nanofluids and performance of a direct solar absorber using nanofluids, in: ASME 2009 Second International Conference on Micro/Nanoscale Heat and Mass Transfer, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2009, pp. 549-553.
[27] M. Karami, M. Akhavan-Bahabadi, S. Delfani, M.J.R. Raisee, S.E. Reviews, Experimental investigation of CuO nanofluid-based Direct Absorption Solar Collector for residential applications, 52 (2015) 793-801.
[28] M. Vakili, S. Hosseinalipour, S. Delfani, S. Khosrojerdi, M.J.S.E. Karami, Experimental investigation of graphene nanoplatelets nanofluid-based volumetric solar collector for domestic hot water systems, 131 (2016) 119-130.
[29] R. Shende, R.J.S.E.M. Sundara, S. Cells, Nitrogen doped hybrid carbon based composite dispersed nanofluids as working fluid for low-temperature direct absorption solar collectors, 140 (2015) 9-16.
[30] Z. Said, R. Saidur, N.J.I.C.i.H. Rahim, M. Transfer, Optical properties of metal oxides based nanofluids, 59 (2014) 46-54.
[31] M. Karami, M.A. Bahabadi, S. Delfani, A.J.S.E.M. Ghozatloo, S. Cells, A new application of carbon nanotubes nanofluid as working fluid of low-temperature direct absorption solar collector, 121 (2014) 114-118.
[32] A. Lenert, Y.S.P. Zuniga, E.N. Wang, Nanofluid-based absorbers for high temperature direct solar collectors, in: 2010 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, pp. 499-508.
[33] E.P. Bandarra Filho, O.S.H. Mendoza, C.L.L. Beicker, A. Menezes, D.J.E.C. Wen, Management, Experimental investigation of a silver nanoparticle-based direct absorption solar thermal system, 84 (2014) 261-267.
[34] M. Vakili, S. Hosseinalipour, S. Delfani, S.J.S.E.M. Khosrojerdi, S. Cells, Photothermal properties of graphene nanoplatelets nanofluid for low-temperature direct absorption solar collectors, 152 (2016) 187-191.
[35] S. Delfani, M. Karami, M.J.R.E. Akhavan-Behabadi, Performance characteristics of a residential-type direct absorption solar collector using MWCNT nanofluid, 87 (2016) 754-764.
[36] T.B. Gorji, A.J.S.E. Ranjbar, A numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of a low-flux direct absorption solar collector (DASC) using graphite, magnetite and silver nanofluids, 135 (2016) 493-505.
[37] R.C. Shende, S.J.S.E.M. Ramaprabhu, S. Cells, Thermo-optical properties of partially unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed nanofluids for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems, 157 (2016) 117-125.
[38] L. Zhang, J. Liu, G. He, Z. Ye, X. Fang, Z.J.S.E.M. Zhang, S. Cells, Radiative properties of ionic liquid-based nanofluids for medium-to-high-temperature direct absorption solar collectors, 130 (2014) 521-528.
[39] H.K. Gupta, G.D. Agrawal, J.J.S.E. Mathur, An experimental investigation of a low temperature Al2O3-H2O nanofluid based direct absorption solar collector, 118 (2015) 390-396.
[40] H.K. Gupta, G.D. Agrawal, J.J.C.S.i.T.E. Mathur, Investigations for effect of Al2O3–H2O nanofluid flow rate on the efficiency of direct absorption solar collector, 5 (2015) 70-78.
[41] J. Liu, Z. Ye, L. Zhang, X. Fang, Z.J.S.E.M. Zhang, S. Cells, A combined numerical and experimental study on graphene/ionic liquid nanofluid based direct absorption solar collector, 136 (2015) 177-186.
[42] S. Ladjevardi, A. Asnaghi, P. Izadkhast, A.J.S.E. Kashani, Applicability of graphite nanofluids in direct solar energy absorption, 94 (2013) 327-334.
[43] D.A. Vincely, E.J.E.c. Natarajan, management, Experimental investigation of the solar FPC performance using graphene oxide nanofluid under forced circulation, 117 (2016) 1-11.
[44] P. Nagarajan, J. Subramani, S. Suyambazhahan, R.J.E.P. Sathyamurthy, Nanofluids for solar collector applications: a review, 61 (2014) 2416-2434.
[45] M. Tahani, M. Vakili, S.J.I.C.i.H. Khosrojerdi, M. Transfer, Experimental evaluation and ANN modeling of thermal conductivity of graphene oxide nanoplatelets/deionized water nanofluid, 76 (2016) 358-365.
[46] S.S. Park, N.J.J.R.e. Kim, A study on the characteristics of carbon nanofluid for heat transfer enhancement of heat pipe, 65 (2014) 123-129.
[47] W. Yu, H.J.J.o.n. Xie, A review on nanofluids: preparation, stability mechanisms, and applications, 2012 (2012) 1.
[48] Z. Said, R. Saidur, M. Sabiha, A. Hepbasli, N.J.J.o.c.p. Rahim, Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated Al2O3 nanofluid, 112 (2016) 3915-3926.
[49] B.J.B.B.S.I. EN12975, 2. Thermal solar systems and components solar collectors-Part 2: test methods FS, (2001).