An investigation of pool boiling under alternating magnetic field and steady-state conditions

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Aerospace Engineering, Shahid Sattari Aeronautical University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Applying an alternating magnetic field around the pool boiling region has various effects on the pool boiling's major characteristics. Steady-state pool boiling experiments were performed with deionized water under atmospheric pressure and the application of an alternating magnetic field. A nickel-chrome wire with a diameter of 0.1 mm was used as a heater. Two Helmholtz coils were used to generate the magnetic field.  The effects of applying this field with intensities of 5.8, 8.9, and 13.3 mT on pool boiling parameters were investigated in experiments and compared to the state without a magnetic field. The results show that, in general, the application of a magnetic field shortens the pool boiling process and delays the start of the nucleate boiling regime. The critical heat flux did not vary significantly when alternating magnetic fields were used. In comparison to no magnetic field application, this parameter decreased by 1.38%, 2.31%, and 3.33% at magnetic field intensities of 5.8, 8.9, and 13.3 mT. But the boiling heat transfer coefficient has increased to a maximum of 47% at the critical heat flux point. The Lorentz force acting on water molecules reduced the number of bubbles surrounding the wire heater, allowing the heat produced to be transferred to the surrounding liquid more quickly. As a result, the heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing magnetic field strength.


Main Subjects

[1] X.-F. Pang, B. Deng, The changes of macroscopic features and microscopic structures of water under influence of magnetic field, Physica B: Condensed Matter, 403(19) (2008) 3571-3577.
[2] S. Alangar, Effect of boiling surface vibration on heat transfer, Heat and Mass Transfer, 53(1) (2017) 73-79.
[3] T.-B. Chang, Z.-L. Wang, Experimental investigation into effects of ultrasonic vibration on pool boiling heat transfer performance of horizontal low-finned U-tube in TiO2/R141b nanofluid, Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(11) (2016) 2381-2390.
[4] H.J. Kim, J.H. Jeong, Numerical Analysis of Experimental Observations for Heat Transfer Augmentation by Ultrasonic Vibration, Heat Transfer Engineering, 27(2) (2006) 14-22.
[5] K.F. Jongdoc Park, Qiusheng Liu, Critical heat flux phenomena depending on pre-pressurization in transient heat input, in:  AIP, 2017, pp. 080005.
[6] Y. Li, K. Fukuda, Q. Liu, Steady and Transient CHF in Subcooled Pool Boiling of Water under Sub-atmospheric Pressures, Marine Engineering, 52(2) (2017) 245-250.
[7] H. Moghadasi, H. Fathalizadeh, A. Mehdikhani, H. Saffari, Surface Modification Utilizing Photolithography Process for Pool Boiling Enhancement: An Experimental Study, Heat Transfer Engineering, 43(12) (2022) 1008-1024.
[8] M. Shojaeian, M. Yildizhan, Ö. Coşkun, E. Ozkalay, Y. Tekşen, M. Gulgun, H. Acar, A. Kosar, Investigation of change in surface morphology of heated surfaces upon pool boiling of magnetic fluids under magnetic actuation, Materials Research Express, 3 (2016) 096102.
[9] A. Walunj, S. Alangar, Experimental Investigation on Transient Pool Boiling Heat Transfer from Rough Surface and Heat Transfer Correlations, International Journal of Heat and Technology, 37 (2019) 545-554.
[10] A. Walunj, A. Sathyabhama, Transient CHF enhancement in high pressure pool boiling on rough surface, Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification, 127 (2018) 145-158.
[11] A. Ayoobi, A.F. Khorasani, M. Ramezanizadeh, A. Afshari, Experimental investigation of transient pool boiling characteristics of Fe3O4 ferrofluid in comparison with deionized water, Applied Thermal Engineering, 179 (2020) 115642.
[12] L. Cheng, G. Xia, Q. Li, J. Thome, Fundamental Issues, Technology Development And Challenges Of Boiling Heat Transfer, Critical Heat Flux And Two-Phase Flow Phenomena With Nanofluids, Heat Transfer Engineering, 40 (2018).
[13] L. Fan, J. Li, D.-Y. Li, L. Zhang, Z.-T. Yu, K.-F. Cen, The effect of concentration on transient pool boiling heat transfer of graphene-based aqueous nanofluids, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 91 (2015).
[14] M. Mohammadpourfard, H. Aminfar, M. Sahraro, Numerical simulation of nucleate pool boiling on the horizontal surface for ferrofluid under the effect of non-uniform magnetic field, Heat and Mass Transfer, 50(8) (2014) 1167-1176.
[15] P. Naphon, Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids, International Journal of Thermophysics, 36(10) (2015) 2810-2819.
[16] J. Ishimoto, M. Okubo, S. Kamiyama, M. Higashitani, Bubble Behavior in Magnetic Fluid under a Nonuniform Magnetic Field, JSME International Journal Series B, 38(3) (1995) 382-387.
[17] S.-D.O.H.-Y. Kwak, A Study of Bubble Behavior and Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement under Electric Field, Heat Transfer Engineering, 21(4) (2000) 33-45.
[18] P.S. Lykoudis, Bubble growth in the presence of a magnetic field, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 19(12) (1976) 1357-1362.
[19] L. Hołysz, A. Szcześ, E. Chibowski, Effects of static magnetic field on water and electrolyte solutions, Journal of colloid and interface science, 316 (2008) 996-1002.
[20] H. Habibi Khoshmehr, A. Saboonchi, M.B. Shafii, N. Jahani, The study of magnetic field implementation on cylinder quenched in boiling ferro-fluid, Applied Thermal Engineering, 64(1) (2014) 331-338.
[21] A.H. Mahmoudi, E. Abu-Nada, Combined Effect of Magnetic Field and Nanofluid Variable Properties on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Natural Convection, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 63(6) (2013) 452-472.
[22] A. Abdollahi, M.R. Salimpour, N. Etesami, Experimental analysis of magnetic field effect on the pool boiling heat transfer of a ferrofluid, Applied Thermal Engineering, 111 (2016).
[23] A.R. Ayoobi, A.R. Faghih Khorasani, Study of transient pool boiling of deionized water in two modes of presence and absence of a magnetic field, Journal of Solid and Fluid Mechanics, 10(1) (2020) 209-221.
[24] P. S.LYKOUDIS, Bubble growth in the presence of a magnetic field, Heat and Mass Transfer, 19 (1976) 1357-1362.
[25] A. Vatani, P. Woodfield, N.-T. Nguyen, D.V. Dao, Thermomagnetic Convection Around a Current-Carrying Wire in Ferrofluid, Journal of Heat Transfer, 139 (2017).
[26] Q. Li, Y. Xuan, Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics of magnetic fluid flow around a fine wire under the influence of an external magnetic field, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 33(4) (2009) 591-596.
[27] W.M. Frix, G.G. Karady, B.A. Venetz, Comparison of calibration systems for magnetic field measurement equipment, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 9(1) (1994) 100-108.
[28] T. Henry, Ohm's Law, Electrical Math and Voltage Drop Calculations, Henry Publications, 1992.
[29] L. Weiner, P. Chiotti, H.A. Wilhelm, U.S.A.E. Commission, A. Laboratory, Temperature Dependence of Electrical Resistivity of Metals, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Technical Information Service, 1952.
[30] R.J. Moffat, Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 1(1) (1988) 3-17.
[31] M. Yaghoubi, K. Hirbodi, M.R. Nematollahi, S. Bashiri, Experimental Study of Subcooled Pool Boiling around a Circular Rough Cylinder, AUT Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 1(1) (2017) 21-28.
[32] N. Zuber, Nucleate boiling. The region of isolated bubbles and the similarity with natural convection, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6(1) (1963) 53-78.
[33] I. Pioro, Experimental Evaluation of Constants for the Rohsenow Pool Boiling Correlation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 42 (1998) 2003-2013.
[34] J.P. Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
[35] M. Joyce, Chapter 7 - Cooling and Thermal Concepts, in: M. Joyce (Ed.) Nuclear Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2018, pp. 129-166.
[36] A. Sakurai, M. Shiotsu, K. Hata, A General Correlation for Pool Film Boiling Heat Transfer From a Horizontal Cylinder to Subcooled Liquid: Part 2—Experimental Data for Various Liquids and Its Correlation, Journal of Heat Transfer, 112(2) (1990) 441-450.
[37] Y.-H. Zhao, T. Masuoka, T. Tsuruta, Theoretical studies on transient pool boiling based on microlayer model, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 45(21) (2002) 4325-4331.
[38] E.J.L. Toledo, T.C. Ramalho, Z.M. Magriotis, Influence of magnetic field on physical–chemical properties of the liquid water: Insights from experimental and theoretical models, Journal of Molecular Structure, 888(1) (2008) 409-415.
[39] J.V. Stewart, Intermediate Electromagnetic Theory, World Scientific, 2001.