TPMS scaffolds and their comparison with Cancellous bone: fluid flow point of view‎

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Of Zanjan.


The present study investigated bone growth characteristics, such as permeability, wall shear stress, and surface-to-volume ratio. By comparing them with Cancellous bone properties, the most desirable scaffolds for bone cell growth have been selected. Nine porous triply periodic minimal surfaces scaffolds in the exact unit cell sizes in four porosities have been designed. The simulation has been performed for Newtonian fluids of water and blood. The non-Newtonian model of the blood has also been examined for comparison with the Newtonian model. By considering the permeability of Cancellous bones, scaffolds that effectively mimicked the characteristics of this type of bone have been identified. Using the scaffold wall shear stress distribution, scaffolds with symmetrical and uniform wall shear stresses have been identified, including Gyroid, Fischer-Koch S, Schwarz-diamond, and Schwarz-diamond 2 scaffolds. The Fischer-Koch S scaffold has the highest permeability among these four scaffolds, and Schwartz Diamond 2 scaffold has the closest permeability to Cancellous bone. Also, the Schwarz-diamond scaffold at 80% porosity and Schwarz-diamond 2 scaffold at 90% porosity provided the highest available cell adhesion and proliferation level. This proved that selecting the most desirable scaffold is complex and challenging and should be chosen according to its conditions and application.


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