Experimental Study on Puncture Resistance of 2D and 3D Glass Fabrics Reinforced with Shear Thickening Fluid

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

2 Dynamic Behavior of Materials Research Laboratory, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

In this study, the quasi-static puncture resistance of neat and shear thickening fluid impregnated Kevlar, 2D, and 3D-glass fabrics were investigated using a universal testing machine. For the synthesis of the shear thickening fluid, silica nanoparticles were dispersed in polyethylene glycol in the mass fraction of 20, 25, 30, and 35 wt%. The influence of the shear thickening fluid concentration on the puncture resistance of the impregnated 3D-glass fabrics was examined and compared with the neat samples. The results revealed the puncture resistance of the impregnated 3D-glass fabrics increased with raising the concentration from 20 to 30 wt% (637 to 688 N). However, the performance of the 35 wt% impregnated sample was reduced (657 N). The 30 wt% impregnated 3D-glass fabric showed the most puncture resistance, such that its peak force (688 N) was 17% higher than the neat case (590 N). The results were compared with those of Kevlar and four-ply 2D-glass fabrics, and it was observed that the 30 wt% effect on the 3D fabrics was more evident than them. Unlike the 2D-glass fabrics, the bending angle (θ) for the 3D-glass fabrics decreased by 10° and as a result, their flexibility lessened. The thickness of the impregnated 2D-glass fabric increased more than the 3D fabrics (27% vs. 4%).

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Y. Xu, X. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Yuan, Stabbing resistance of body armour panels impregnated with shear thickening fluid, Composite Structures, 163 (2017) 465-473.
[2] S. Gürgen, An investigation on composite laminates including shear thickening fluid under stab condition, Journal of Composite Materials, 53(8) (2019) 1111-1122.
[3] C.T. Nguyen, P.I. Dolez, T. Vu-Khanh, C, Gauvin, J. Lara, Effect of protective glove use conditions on their resistance to needle puncture, Plastics, rubber and composites, 42(5) (2013) 187-193.
[4] Q.S. Wang, R.J Sun, X. Tian, M. Yao, Y. Feng, Quasi-static puncture resistance behaviors of high-strength polyester fabric for soft body armor, Results in physics, 6 (2016) 554-560.
[5] A. Gaurav, K.K. Singh, Safe design fatigue life of CNT loaded woven GFRP laminates under fully reversible axial fatigue: application of two-parameters Weibull distribution, Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 48(7) (2019) 293-306.
[6] R. Umer, H. Alhussein, J. Zhou, W.J. Cantwell, The mechanical properties of 3D woven composites, Journal of Composite Materials, 51(12) (2017) 1703-16.
[7] M. Jeddi, M. Yazdani, Dynamic compressive response of 3D GFRP composites with shear thickening fluid (STF) matrix as cushioning materials, Journal of Composite Materials, (2021) 0021998320984247.
[8] W. Ji, A.M. Waas, Modeling compressive response of 3D woven textile composites accounting for micro scale geometric uncertainties, Advanced Composite Materials, 25(2) (2019) 203-223.
[9] Q. Li, H. Wang, P. Yin, L. Sun, C. Wu, The mechanical properties of damping rubber reinforced by Wrap Knitted Spacer Fabric, Polymer Composites, 39(12) (2018) 4434-4441.
[10] R. Amooyi Dizaji, M. Yazdani, E. Aligholizadeh, A. Rashed, Effect of 3D-woven glass fabric and nanoparticles incorporation on impact energy absorption of GLARE composites, Polymer Composites, 39(10) (2018) 3528-3536.
[11] T.T. Li, L. Ling, X. Wang, Q. Jiang, B. Liu, J.H. Lin, C.W. Lou, Mechanical, acoustic, and thermal performances of shear thickening fluid–filled rigid polyurethane foam composites: Effects of content of shear thickening fluid and particle size of silica, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 136(18) (2019) 47359.
[12] X. Gong, Y. Xu, W. Zhu, S. Xuan, W. Jiang, W. Jiang, Study of the knife stab and puncture-resistant performance for shear thickening fluid enhanced fabric, Journal of Composite Materials, 48(6) (2014) 641-657.
[13] H.A. Barnes, Shear thickening (“Dilatancy”) in suspensions of nonaggregating solid particles dispersed in Newtonian liquids, Journal of Rheology, 33(2) (1989) 329-366.
[14] H. Hasan-nezhad, M. Yazdani, M. Salami-Kalajahi, M. Jeddi, Mechanical behavior of 3D GFRP composite with pure and treated shear thickening fluid matrix subject to quasi-static puncture and shear impact loading, Journal of Composite Materials, 54(26) (2020) 3933-3948.
[15] Y. Park, Y. Kim, A.H. Baluch, C.G. Kim, Empirical study of the high velocity impact energy absorption characteristics of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated Kevlar fabric, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 72 (2014) 67-74.
[16] M.J. Decker, C.J. Halbach, C.H. Nam, N.J. Wagner, E.D. Wetzel, Stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabrics, Composites science and technology, 67(3-4) (2007) 565-578.
[17] Y.S. Lee, E.D. Wetzel, N.J. Wagner, The ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar® woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid, Journal of materials science, 38(13) (2003) 2825-2833.
[18] A. Khodadadi, G.H. Liaghat, A.R. Sabet, H. Hadavinia, A. Aboutorabi, O. Razmkhah, M. Akbari, M. Tahmasebi, Experimental and numerical analysis of penetration into Kevlar fabric impregnated with shear thickening fluid, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 31(3) (2018) 392-407.
[19] M. Jeddi, M. Yazdani, H. Hasan-nezhad, Energy absorption characteristics of aluminum sandwich panels with Shear Thickening Fluid (STF) filled 3D fabric cores under dynamic loading conditions, Thin-Walled Structures, 168 (2021) 108254.
[20] A. Abbaszadeh, M. Yazdani, F. Abbasi, A. Rashed, Investigating the behavior of silicon-coated Kevlar fabric under low-velocity impact: An experimental and numerical study, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 32(5) (2019) 635-656.
[21] R. Wei, B. Dong, F. Wang, J. Yang, Y. Jiang, W. Zhai, H. Li, Effects of silica morphology on the shear thickening behavior of shear thickening fluids and stabbing resistance of fabric composites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, (2019) 48809.
[22] T.A. Hassan, V.K. Rangari, S. Jeelani, Synthesis, processing and characterization of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated fabric composites, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527(12) (2010) 2892-2899.
[23] R.L. Hoffman, Explanations for the cause of shear thickening in concentrated colloidal suspensions, Journal of Rheology, 42(1) (1998) 111-123.
[24] J. Bender, N.J. Wagner, Reversible shear thickening in monodisperse and bidisperse colloidal dispersions, Journal of Rheology, 40(5) (1996) 899-916.
[25] S. Gürgen, M.C. Kuşhan, W. Li, Shear thickening fluids in protective applications: a review, Progress in Polymer Science, 75 (2017) 48-72.
[26] J.R. Melrose, R.C. Ball, Continuous shear thickening transitions in model concentrated colloids-The role of interparticle forces, Journal of Rheology, 48(5) (2004) 937-960.
[27] Y.S. Lee, E.D. Wetzel, N.J. Wagner, The ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar® woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid, Journal of materials science, 38(13) (2003) 2825-2833.
[28] T.J. Kang, K.H. Hong, M.R. Yoo, Preparation and properties of fumed silica/Kevlar composite fabrics for application of stab resistant material, Fibers and Polymers, 11(5) (2010) 719-724.