Series Flat Plate Pulsating Heat Pipe: Fabrication and Experimentation

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Pulsating Heat Pipes have recently become popular due to their capability in removing heat at higher rates, over short or long distances. Their passive operation and relative ease of manufacturing have been added to their popularity.  In this study, a combination of two flat plate pulsating heat pipes in series configuration is proposed and their thermo-hydraulic behavior is investigated experimentally in vertical bottom heated mode. The series configuration provides the possibility of heat removal from the heat source within longer distances at acceptable efficiencies. Fluid type, filling ratios, and input powers were the factors chosen to study their influence on the operation of the setup. The results showed that the 60% filling ratio for the water filled channel together with the 40% filling ratio for the methanol filled channel present the lowest thermal resistance in the range of considered input powers. It was observed that for all of the filling ratio combinations used, the methanol channel started oscillation before the water channel and it presented lower thermal resistance as compared with the water channel. The experimental results demonstrated that the dominant hydrodynamic fluid pattern is slug flow with the pulsation of fluid columns together with sporadic circulation at higher input power rates.


Main Subjects

[1] R. Gaugler, Heat transfer device, in:  U.S. Patent No. 2350348, 1994.
[2] L. Trefethen, On the surface tension pumping of liquids or a possible role of the candlewick in space exploration, GE Tech. Info., Serial, (615) (1962) D114.
[3] T. Wyatt, Satellite temperature stabilization system, in:  U.S. Patent No. 3090212, 1963.
[4] G. Grover, T. Cotter, G. Erickson, Structures of very high thermal conductance, Journal of Applied Physics, 35(6) (1964) 1990-1991.
[5] H. Akachi, Structure of heat pipe, in:  U.S. Patent No. 4921041, 1990.
[6] P. Charoensawan, S. Khandekar, M. Groll, P. Terdtoon, Closed loop pulsating heat pipes: Part A: parametric experimental investigations, Applied thermal engineering, 23(16) (2003) 2009-2020.
[7] Y. Zhang, A. Faghri, Heat transfer in a pulsating heat pipe with open end, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 45(4) (2002) 755-764.
[8] R.T. Dobson, Theoretical and experimental modelling of an open oscillatory heat pipe including gravity, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 43(2) (2004) 113-119.
[9] S. Khandekar, M. Groll, P. Charoensawan, S. Rittidech, P. Terdtoon, Closed and open loop pulsating heat pipes, in:  K-4, Proceedings of 13th International Heat Pipe Conference, China Academy of Space Technology Shanghai, China, 2004.
[10] E. Jiaqiang, X. Zhao, H. Liu, J. Chen, W. Zuo, Q. Peng, Field synergy analysis for enhancing heat transfer capability of a novel narrow-tube closed oscillating heat pipe, Applied Energy, 175 (2016) 218-228.
[11] M. Ebrahimi, M.B. Shafii, M.A. Bijarchi, Experimental investigation of the thermal management of flat-plate closed-loop pulsating heat pipes with interconnecting channels, Applied Thermal Engineering, 90 (2015) 838-847.
[12] C.-Y. Tseng, K.-S. Yang, K.-H. Chien, M.-S. Jeng, C.-C. Wang, Investigation of the performance of pulsating heat pipe subject to uniform/alternating tube diameters, Experimental thermal and fluid science, 54 (2014) 85-92.
[13] B.S. Taft, A.D. Williams, B.L. Drolen, Review of pulsating heat pipe working fluid selection, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 26(4) (2012) 651-656.
[14] X. Wang, L. Jia, Experimental study on heat transfer performance of pulsating heat pipe with refrigerants, Journal of Thermal Science, 25(5) (2016) 449-453.
[15] V. Manno, M. Mameli, S. Filippeschi, M. Marengo, Thermal instability of a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe: Combined effect of orientation and filling ratio,  (2014).
[16] B. Borgmeyer, C. Wilson, R. Winholtz, H. Ma, D. Jacobson, D. Hussey, Heat transport capability and fluid flow neutron radiography of three-dimensional oscillating heat pipes, Journal of Heat Transfer, 132(6) (2010).
[17] T. Hao, H. Ma, X. Ma, Heat transfer performance of polytetrafluoroethylene oscillating heat pipe with water, ethanol, and acetone as working fluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 131 (2019) 109-120.
[18] W. Kim, S.J. Kim, Effect of a flow behavior on the thermal performance of closed-loop and closed-end pulsating heat pipes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 149 (2020) 119251.
[19] A. Takawale, S. Abraham, A. Sielaff, P.S. Mahapatra, A. Pattamatta, P. Stephan, A comparative study of flow regimes and thermal performance between flat plate pulsating heat pipe and capillary tube pulsating heat pipe, Applied Thermal Engineering, 149 (2019) 613-624.
[20] J. Qu, J. Zhao, Z. Rao, Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of three-dimensional oscillating heat pipe, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 109 (2017) 589-600.
[21] H. Alijani, B. Çetin, Y. Akkuş, Z. Dursunkaya, Effect of design and operating parameters on the thermal performance of aluminum flat grooved heat pipes, Applied Thermal Engineering, 132 (2018) 174-187.
[22] M. Aboutalebi, A.N. Moghaddam, N. Mohammadi, M. Shafii, Experimental investigation on performance of a rotating closed loop pulsating heat pipe, International communications in heat and mass transfer, 45 (2013) 137-145.
[23] B. Kelly, Y. Hayashi, Y.J. Kim, Novel radial pulsating heat-pipe for high heat-flux thermal spreading, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 121 (2018) 97-106.
[24] D. Bastakoti, H. Zhang, D. Li, W. Cai, F. Li, An overview on the developing trend of pulsating heat pipe and its performance, Applied Thermal Engineering, 141 (2018) 305-332.
[25] Y. Zhang, A. Faghri, Advances and unsolved issues in pulsating heat pipes, Heat Transfer Engineering, 29(1) (2008) 20-44.
[26] B. Zohuri, Application of Heat Pipes to Fissionable Nuclear Reactor, in:  Heat Pipe Applications in Fission Driven Nuclear Power Plants, Springer, 2019, pp. 219-264.
[27] R. Hernandez, M. Todosow, N.R. Brown, Micro heat pipe nuclear reactor concepts: Analysis of fuel cycle performance and environmental impacts, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 126 (2019) 419-426.
[28] M. Mochizuki, R. Singh, T. Nguyen, T. Nguyen, S. Sugihara, K. Mashiko, Y. Saito, V. Wuttijumnong, Nuclear reactor must need heat pipe for cooling, Frontiers in Heat Pipes (FHP), 2(3) (2012).
[29] P.-f. Gou, L.E. Fennern, C.D. Sawyer, Nuclear reactor heat pipe, in:  U.S. Patent No. 5684848, 1997.
[30] H. Akachi, F. Polášek, P. Štulc, Pulsating heat pipes, in:  Proceedings 5th International Heat Pipe Symp., 1996, 1996.
[31] Q. Cai, C.-l. Chen, J.F. Asfia, Operating characteristic investigations in pulsating heat pipe,  (2006).
[32] Edwards Vacuum Pump Manual, in: Instruction Manual: RV3, RV5, RV8 and RV12 Rotary Vane Pumps.
[33] R.J. Moffat, Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Experimental thermal and fluid science, 1(1) (1988) 3-17.
[34] R. Senjaya, T. Inoue, Bubble generation in oscillating heat pipe, Applied thermal engineering, 60(1-2) (2013) 251-255.