Evaluation of thermodynamics effect on mineral scale formation in water injection wells supported by laboratory experiments

Document Type : Research Article


1 Chemical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Chemical engineering department, Amirkabir university of technology, Tehran, Iran


Usually, some amount of unwanted water is being produced along with oil production in most of the oil fields. These waters are dangerous to environment and must be managed safely. In most cases, they are injected into water disposal wells. Scale formation and well plugging during water injection to disposal wells is a critical problem in waste water management. Main reasons for inorganic scale formation in these wells are incompatibilities of injection water and reservoir water, and thermodynamics condition variation of injection water. These mechanisms lead to the mineral scales precipitation and consequently, they are deposited in porous media which leads to injection rate reduction in water disposal wells. The critical place of scale formation is the well bottom. It is the entrance of injected fluids and commonly results in the increase of injection pressure and reduction of water injection. In the current study, the effect of pressure and temperature would be assessed on precipitation of inorganic scale by lab testing and software simulation at different mixing ratio of injection water to formation water. Also, some core flooding tests are run to evaluate the effect of deposited mineral scales on water injection process in the core samples. All input data of software modeling and core samples belong to a water injection well in a sand stone reservoir in south west of Iran.


Main Subjects

[1] O. Golovanova, S. Ghyngazov, Thermodynamic and experimental modeling of the formation of the mineral phase of calcification, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 291 (2019) 111260.
[2] P. Doubra, A. Kamran-Pirzaman, A.H. Mohammadi, R. Hassanalizadeh, Thermodynamic modelling of scale (Calcite, Barite, Anhydrite and Gypsum) deposition from brine, Journal of molecular Liquids, 230 (2017) 96-103.
[3] M.A. Mahmoud, Evaluating the damage caused by calcium sulfate scale precipitation during low-and high-salinity-water injection, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 53(03) (2014) 141-150.
[4] P. Abbasi, S. Abbasi, J. Moghadasi, Experimental investigation of mixed-salt precipitation during smart water injection in the carbonate formation, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 299 (2020) 112131.
[5] F. Civan, Scale effect on porosity and permeability: Kinetics, model, and correlation, AIChE journal, 47(2) (2001) 271-287.
[6] A. Kazemi Nia Korrani, G.R. Jerauld, K. Sepehrnoori, Mechanistic modeling of low-salinity waterflooding through coupling a geochemical package with a compositional reservoir simulator, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 19(01) (2016) 142-162.
[7] M. Zahedzadeh, M. Karambeigi, E. Roayaei, M. Emadi, M. Radmehr, H. Gholamianpour, S. Ashoori, S. Shokrollahzadeh, Comprehensive management of mineral scale deposition in carbonate oil fields–A case study, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 92(11) (2014) 2264-2272.
[8] M.M. Vazirian, T.V. Charpentier, M. de Oliveira Penna, A. Neville, Surface inorganic scale formation in oil and gas industry: As adhesion and deposition processes, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 137 (2016) 22-32.
[9] A.T. Kan, J.Z. Dai, G. Deng, K. Harouaka, Y.-T. Lu, X. Wang, Y. Zhao, M.B. Tomson, Recent Advances in Scale Prediction: Approach and Limitations, SPE Journal,  (2019).
[10] S.-Y. Wang, Y.-F. Chen, H. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, L.-H. Cheng, Calcium carbonate scaling in forward osmosis for textile reverse osmosis concentrate treatment, Journal of Water Process Engineering, 35 (2020) 101181.
[11] J. Moghadasi, M. Jamialahmadi, H. Müller-Steinhagen, A. Sharif, A. Ghalambor, M. Izadpanah, E. Motaie, Scale formation in Iranian oil reservoir and production equipment during water injection, in:  International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2003.
[12] P. Lu, Q. Wang, T. Chen, F. Chang, A New Approach for Modeling Scale Formation during Water Injection into Carbonate Reservoirs, in:  SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Annual Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2016.
[13] P. Zhang, Y. Liu, S.C. Kuok, A.T. Kan, M.B. Tomson, Development of modeling approaches to describe mineral scale deposition kinetics in porous medium and pipe flow system, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 178 (2019) 594-601.
[14] F. Civan, Reservoir Formation Damage-Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation, Gulf Professional Pub, in, Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2007.
[15] P. Rostami, M. Sharifi, M. Dejam, Shape factor for regular and irregular matrix blocks in fractured porous media, Petroleum Science, 17(1) (2020) 136-152.