A Review of the Different Standard Methods of Measuring the Tubular Braiding Angle

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Textile Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


The simplicity of the braiding, wide variety and high strength of the braid structure are the factors that make this structure, i.e., braid, so essential. These factors also make this structure widely used in various industries, such as aerospace, automotive, medicine, and industrial products such as umbrella ropes, composite boosters, aircraft engine vanes, and medical implants. Therefore, studying the mechanical properties of this structure and obtaining products with desirable mechanical properties has been considered by researchers and the subject of many types of research. Due to the importance of the braiding angle and its relation with the mechanical properties of the braid structures as the fundamental parameter, this paper evaluates different methods of measuring the tubular braiding angles. The braiding angle measurement has been done using different methods. These methods include two general categories called computational methods and image processing techniques. The different methods of each category, their advantages and disadvantages are investigated separately, then the most accurate methods can be selected by users according to the available facilities. This paper aims to provide a comparative summary of different methods of measuring the tubular braiding angle. This innovative review of these methods allows researchers and manufacturers to select and use the most appropriate method with the highest accuracy according to their conditions and facilities.


Main Subjects

[1] Z. Shang, S. Wang, Z. You, J. Ma, A hybrid tubular braid with improved longitudinal stiffness for medical catherter, Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 19(3) (2019) 1950003.
[2] A. Rawal, H. Saraswat, A. Sibal, Tensile response of braided structures: a review, Textile Research Journal, 85(19) (2015) 2083-2096.‏
[3] A. Pragya, H. Singh, B. Kumar, H. Gupta, P. Shankar, Designing and investigation of braided-cum-woven structure for wearable heating textile, Engineering Research Express, 2(1) (2020) 015003.‏
[4] A.J. Hunt, J.P. Carey, A machine vision system for the braid angle measurement of tubular braided structures, Textile Research Journal, 89(14) (2019) 2919-2937.
[5] A. Rawal, R. Kumar, H. Saraswat, Tensile mechanics of braided sutures, Textile Research Journal, 82(16) (2012) 1703–1710.
[6] D. Boris, L. Xavier, S. Damien, The tensile behaviour of biaxial and triaxial braided fabrics,  Journal of Industrial Textiles, (2016) 1–21.
[7] A. Rawal, A. Sibal, H. Saraswat, Tensile Behaviour of Regular Triaxial Braided Structures, Mechanics of Materials(2015) 1-37.
[8] P. Potluri, A. Manan , M. Francke, R.J. Day, Flexural and torsional behaviour of biaxial and triaxial braided composite structures, Composite Structures 75 (2006), 377–386.
[9] S. Omeroglu, The effect of braiding parameters on the mechanical properties of braided ropes, Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 14(4) (2006) 53-‏57.
[10] M. S. Ahmadi, M. S. Johari, M. Sadighi, M. Esfandeh, An experimental study on mechanical properties of GFRP braid-pultruded composite rods, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 3(9) (2009) 560–568.
[11] Z. Tadi Beni, M. Safar Johari, M. Saleh Ahmadi, Comparison of the Post-Impact Behavior of Tubular Braided and Filament Wound Glass/Polyester Composites under Compression, Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 9(2) (2014) 140-145.
[12] Q. Gua, Z. Quana, J. Yua, J. Yana, B. Suna, G. Xu, Structural modeling and mechanical characterizing of three-dimensional four-step braided composites: A review, Composite Structures, 207 (2019) 119–128.
[13] C.G. Pereira, R. Fangueiro, S. Jalali, M. Araujo, P. Marque, Braided reinforcement composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete, Mechanics of Composite Materials, 44(3) (2008) 221-230.
[14] H. Cao, H. Chen, Influence of braided angles on mechanical properties of three-dimentional full five-direction braided composites, Journal of Textile Engineering and Fashion Technology, 1(3) (2017) 1-6.
[15] A. Singh, N. Reynolds, E. M. Keating, A. E. Barnett, S. K. Barbour, D. J. Hughes, The effect of braid angle on the flexural performance of structural braided thermoplastic composite beams, Composite Structures, (2020) 113314.
[16] M. Gautam, S. Sivakumar, A. Barnett, S. Barbour, S.L. Ogin, P. Potluri, On the behaviour offlattened tubular Bi-axial and Tri-axial braided composites in tension, Composite Structures (2020) 113325.
[17] W. Zhenkai, L. Jialu, Braided angle measurement technique for three-dimensional braided composite material preform using mathematical morphology and image texture, AUTEX Research Journal, 6(1) (2006) 30-39.
[18] J.P. Carey, Handbook of advances in braided composite materials: theory, production, testing and applications, Woodhead Publishing, 2016.
[19] D. Brunnschweiler, Braids and braiding, Journal of the Textile Institute proceedings, 44(9) (1953) P666-P686.
[20] S. Phoenix, Mechanical response of a tubular braided cable with an elastic core, Textile Research Journal, 48(2) (1978) 81-91.
[21] H. Nishimoto, A. Ohtani, A. Nakai, H. Hamada, Prediction method for temporal change in fiber orientation on cylindrical braided preforms, Textile Research Journal, 80(9) (2010) 814-821.
[22] D. Brunnschweiler, 5—The structure and tensile properties of braids, Journal of the Textile Institute Transactions, 45(1) (1954) T55-T77.
[23] H. Dabiryan, M. Johari, Analysis of the tensile behavior of tubular braids using energy method, part I: theoretical analysis, The Journal of The Textile Institute, 107(5) (2016) 553-561.
[24] Y. Kyosev, M. Aurich, Investigations about the braiding angle and the cover factor of the braided fabrics using Image Processing and Symbolic Math Toolbox of Matlab, in:  Advances in Braiding Technology, Elsevier, 2016, pp. 549-569.
[25] F.K. Ko, C.M. Pastore, A.A. Head, Atkins & Pearce handbook of industrial braiding, Atkins & Pearce, 1990.
[26] G.w. Du, P. Popper, Analysis of a circular braiding process for complex shapes, The Journal of The Textile Institute, 85(3) (1994) 316-337.
[27] A. Rawal, P. Potluri, C. Steele, Prediction of yarn paths in braided structures formed on a square pyramid, Journal of industrial textiles, 36(3) (2007) 221-226.
[28] A. Rawal, P. Potluri, C. Steele, Geometrical modeling of the yarn paths in three-dimensional braided structures, Journal of Industrial Textiles, 35(2) (2005) 115-135.
[29] P. Potluri, A. Rawal, M. Rivaldi, I. Porat, Geometrical modelling and control of a triaxial braiding machine for producing 3D preforms, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 34(6) (2003) 481-492.
[30] B.G. Lipták, Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Volume One: Process Measurement and Analysis, CRC press, 2003.
[31] N. Li, Studies on Automatic Measurement Technology for Surface Braided Angle of Three-Dimensional Braided Composite Material Performs, International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, 2(5) (2008) 52-56.
[32] B. Lian, L. Jiang, J. McGrath, J. Jaranson, Quantitative determination of morphological features of triaxially braided composites by the use of machine vision, Composites science and technology, 60(2) (2000) 159-166.
[33] Z. Xiao, L. Pei, F. Zhang, Y. Sun, L. Geng, J. Wu, J. Tong, J. Wen, Surface parameters measurement of braided preform based on local edge extreme, The Journal of The Textile Institute, 110(4) (2019) 535-542.
[34] Z. Wan, J. Li, Measurement research of parameter on three-dimensional braided composite material preform surface, Journal of composite materials, 38(5) (2004) 435-448.
[35] G. Guyader, A. Gabor, P. Hamelin, Analysis of 2D and 3D circular braiding processes: Modeling the interaction between the process parameters and the pre-form architecture, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 69 (2013) 90-104.