Optimum Diameter and Location of Pipes Containing Phase Change Materials in a Channel in Latent and Sensible Heat Transfer

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, IRAN


In this paper, two pipes containing phase change materials, located perpendicular to the flow direction in a channel, are simulated numerically to find out their best diameter and location (their distances from the walls) in the convective heat transfer behavior. The governing equations have been solved by the semi-implicit method for pressure linked equations. In the first part, the phase change material is in the phase change (isothermal state) process, and the best location and diameter of the pipes are defined. In the second part, for obtained best size and location obtained in the first part, depending on the phase change material to the fluid special heat capacity ratio, the duration of the after-melting process, and reaching the final equilibrium state of the phase change material has been determined. The results of the first part show the best geometrical parameter depends on the Reynolds and the Prandtl numbers. Results of the second part show, the time at which the temperature of the pipes (phase change material) reaches 99% of the temperature of the inlet flow, depends on the special heat capacity ratio. Also, the best non-dimensional diameter of pipes is 0.153 for Re=500 and 0.165 for Re=700 in different Prandtl numbers and the best non-dimensional distance of the pipes from the wall is between 0.15-0.175 for different Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.


Main Subjects

[1]Y. Hu, P. K. Heiselberg, H. Johra and R. Guo, Experimental and Numerical Study of a PCM Solar Air Heat Exchanger and its Ventilation Preheating Effectiveness, Renewable Energy, 145 (2020) 106-115.
[2]R. J. Khan, M. D. Z. H. Bhuiyan, D. H. Ahmed, Investigation of Heat Transfer of a Building wall in the Presence of Phase Change Material (PCM), Energy and Building Environment, 1 (2020) 199-206.
[3]M. Arici, F. Bilgin, S. Nizetic, H. Karabay, PCM integrated to external building walls: An optimization study on maximum activation of latent heat, Applied Thermal Engineering, 165 (2020) 114560.
[4]A. N. Desai, A. Gunjal and V. K. Singh, Numerical investigations of fin efficacy for phase change material (PCM) based thermal control module, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 147 (2020) 118855.
[5]G. Chen, G. Sun, D. Jiang, Y. Su, Experimental and numerical investigation of the latent heat thermal storage unit with PCM packing at the inner side of a tube, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 152 (2020), 119480.
[6]A. R. Mazhar, A. Shukla, S. Liu, Numerical analysis of rectangular fins in a PCM for low-grade heat harnessing, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 152 (2020) 106306.
[7]M. Aadmi, M. Karkri, M. E. Hammouti, heat transfer characteristics of thermal energy storage for PCM (phase change material) melting in horizontal tube: Numerical and experimental investigations, Energy, 85 (2015) 339-352.
[8]S. Aziz, N. A. M. Amin, M. S. Abdul Majid, M. Belusko, F. Bruno, CFD simulation of a TES tank Comprising a PCM encapsulated in sphere with heat transfer enhancement, Applied Thermal Engineering, 143 (2018) 1085-1092.
[9]L. F. Cabeza, H. Mehling, S. Hiebler, F. Ziegler, Heat transfer enhancement in water when used as PCM in thermal energy storage, Applied Thermal Engineering, 22 (2002) 1141-1151.
[10]C. R. Chen, A. Sharma, S. K. Tyagi, D. Buddhi, Numerical heat transfer studies of PCMs used in a box-type solar cooker, Renewable Energy, 33 (2008) 1121-1129.
[11]T. T. Chow, Y. Lyu, Numerical analysis on the advantage of using PCM heat exchanger in liquid flow window, Applied Thermal Engineering 125 (2017), 1218-1227.
[12]Z. Khan, Z. A. Khan, P. Sewell, Heat transfer evaluation of metal oxides based nano-PCMs for latent heat storage system application, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 144 (2019), 118619.
[13]T. Sathe, A. S. Dhoble, Thermal analysis of an inclined heat sink with finned PCM container for solar applications, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 144 (2019), 118679.
[14]Y. Tian, C. Y. Zhao, A numerical investigation of heat transfer in phase change materials (PCMs) embedded in porous metals, Energy, 36 (2011), 5539-5546.
[15]W. Zhao, A. F. Elmozughi, A. Oztekin, S. Neti, Heat transfer analysis of encapsulated phase change material for thermal energy storage, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 63 (2013), 323-335.
[16]E. Ebrahimi, Experimental Investigation of Cooling Performance Enhancement of a Photovoltaic Module Using a Phase Change Material-CuO Nanoparticles, Amirkabir Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 52 (2) (2018) 281-296.
[17]M. Moshtagh, A. Jamekhorshid, A. Azari, H. Bazaee, An Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer of Slurry Phase Change Material in a Tube with Butterfly Tube Inserts, Amirkabir Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 52 (6) (2020) 1561-1576.
[18]N. Azadi, F. Sarhaddi, F. Sobhnamayan, Thermal Analysis of a Solar Wall Equipped with Photovoltaic Cells and Phase-Change Materials, Amirkabir Journal of Mechanical Engineering, DOI: 10.22060mej.2019.16268.6315.
[19] K. A. Hoffman, Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers, Engineering Education System, Austin, Texas (1989)
[20] M. Raisee, Computation of Flow and Heat Transfer Through Two- and Three-Dimensional Rib-Roughed Passages, (1999), Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester (UMIST)
[21] C. M. Rhie, W.L. Chow, Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil with Trading Edge Separation, AIAA J., 21 (11) (1983) 1525-1535.
[22] H. K. Versteeg, W. Malalasekera, An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method, Harlow, England: Pearson Education Ltd, (2007)
[23]   D. B. Spalding, A Novel Finite Difference Formulation for Differential Expressions Involving Both First and Second Derivatives, International Journal of Numerical Mathematics Engineering,4(1972) 551-559.
[24] S. V. Patankar and D.B. Spalding, A Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in Three-Dimensional Parabolic Flows, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 15(1972), 1787-1806.
[25] J. P. Holman, in: Heat Transfer, eighth ed. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York (1997), pp. 218-282.
[26] K. Taira, T. Colonius, The immersed boundary method: A projection approach, Journal of Computational Physics, 225 (2007) 2118–2137.
[27] A. Bejan, Convection Heat Transfer, John Wiley& Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 4th ed. (2013)