D.I. Rubin, Epidemiology and risk factors for spine pain, Neurologic clinics, 25(2) (2007) 353-371.
 V.M. Ravindra, S.S. Senglaub, A. Rattani, M.C. Dewan, R. Härtl, E. Bisson, K.B. Park, M.G. Shrime, Degenerative lumbar spine disease: estimating global incidence and worldwide volume, Global spine journal, 8(8) (2018) 784-794.
 J.A. Miller, C. Schmatz, A. Schultz, Lumbar disc degeneration: correlation with age, sex, and spine level in 600 autopsy specimens, Spine, 13(2) (1988) 173-178.
 Y. Kim, V.K. Goel, J.N. Weinstein, T.-h. Lim, Effect of disc degeneration at one level on the adjacent level in axial mode, Spine, 16(3) (1991) 331-335.
 A. Polikeit, L.P. Nolte, S.J. Ferguson, Simulated influence of osteoporosis and disc degeneration on the load transfer in a lumbar functional spinal unit, Journal of biomechanics, 37(7) (2004) 1061-1069.
 L.N. Omran, K.A. Ezzat, M. Elhoseny, A.E. Hassanien, Biomechanics of artificial intervertebral disc with different materials using finite element method, Soft Computing, 23(19) (2019) 9215-9236.
 H. Schmidt, A. Kettler, A. Rohlmann, L. Claes, H.-J. Wilke, The risk of disc prolapses with complex loading in different degrees of disc degeneration–a finite element analysis, Clinical biomechanics, 22(9) (2007) 988-998.
 A. Rohlmann, T. Zander, H. Schmidt, H.-J. Wilke, G. Bergmann, Analysis of the influence of disc degeneration on the mechanical behaviour of a lumbar motion segment using the finite element method, Journal of biomechanics, 39(13) (2006) 2484-2490.
 M.D. Brown, D.C. Holmes, A.D. Heiner, Measurement of cadaver lumbar spine motion segment stiffness, Spine, 27(9) (2002) 918-922.
 L.M. Ruberté, R.N. Natarajan, G.B. Andersson, Influence of single-level lumbar degenerative disc disease on the behavior of the adjacent segments—a finite element model study, Journal of Biomechanics, 42(3) (2009) 341-348.
 I. Dehghan‐Hamani, N. Arjmand, A. Shirazi‐Adl, Subject‐specific loads on the lumbar spine in detailed finite element models scaled geometrically and kinematic‐driven by radiography images, International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering, 35(4) (2019) e3182.
 W.M. Park, K. Kim, Y.H. Kim, Effects of degenerated intervertebral discs on intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressures, and facet joint forces of the whole lumbar spine, Computers in biology and medicine, 43(9) (2013) 1234-1240.
 Y. Wu, Y. Wang, J. Wu, J. Guan, N. Mao, C. Lu, R. Lv, M. Ding, Z. Shi, B. Cai, Study of double-level degeneration of lower lumbar spines by finite element model, World neurosurgery, 86 (2016) 294-299.
 R.M. Kanna, A.P. Shetty, S. Rajasekaran, Patterns of lumbar disc degeneration are different in degenerative disc disease and disc prolapse magnetic resonance imaging analysis of 224 patients, The Spine Journal, 14(2) (2014) 300-307.
 S.-H. Lee, S.D. Daffner, J.C. Wang, Does lumbar disk degeneration increase segmental mobility in vivo?: segmental motion analysis of the whole lumbar spine using kinetic MRI, Clinical Spine Surgery, 27(2) (2014) 111-116.
 M. El-Rich, P.-J. Arnoux, E. Wagnac, C. Brunet, C.-E. Aubin, Finite element investigation of the loading rate effect on the spinal load-sharing changes under impact conditions, Journal of biomechanics, 42(9) (2009) 1252-1262.
 H. Schmidt, A. Kettler, F. Heuer, U. Simon, L. Claes, H.-J. Wilke, Intradiscal pressure, shear strain, and fiber strain in the intervertebral disc under combined loading, Spine, 32(7) (2007) 748-755.
 H. Schmidt, F. Heuer, U. Simon, A. Kettler, A. Rohlmann, L. Claes, H.-J. Wilke, Application of a new calibration method for a three-dimensional finite element model of a human lumbar annulus fibrosus, Clinical Biomechanics, 21(4) (2006) 337-344.
 C. Breau, A. Shirazi-Adl, J. De Guise, Reconstruction of a human ligamentous lumbar spine using CT images—a three-dimensional finite element mesh generation, Annals of biomedical engineering, 19(3) (1991) 291-302.
 U.M. Ayturk, C.M. Puttlitz, Parametric convergence sensitivity and validation of a finite element model of the human lumbar spine, Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering, 14(8) (2011) 695-705.
 S. Naserkhaki, J.L. Jaremko, S. Adeeb, M. El-Rich, On the load-sharing along the ligamentous lumbosacral spine in flexed and extended postures: finite element study, Journal of biomechanics, 49(6) (2016) 974-982.
 T. Liu, K. Khalaf, S. Naserkhaki, M. El-Rich, Load-sharing in the lumbosacral spine in neutral standing & flexed postures–A combined finite element and inverse static study, Journal of biomechanics, 70 (2018) 43-50.
 S. Naserkhaki, N. Arjmand, A. Shirazi-Adl, F. Farahmand, M. El-Rich, Effects of eight different ligament property datasets on biomechanics of a lumbar L4-L5 finite element model, Journal of biomechanics, 70 (2018) 33-42.
 H. Schmidt, F. Heuer, J. Drumm, Z. Klezl, L. Claes, H.-J. Wilke, Application of a calibration method provides more realistic results for a finite element model of a lumbar spinal segment, Clinical biomechanics, 22(4) (2007) 377-384.
 A. Shirazi-Adl, A.M. Ahmed, S.C. Shrivastava, Mechanical response of a lumbar motion segment in axial torque alone and combined with compression, Spine, 11(9) (1986) 914-927.
 A. Shirazi-Adl, A.A.S.S. Spine, Mechanical response of a lumbar motion segment in axial torque alone and combined with compression, Clinical Biomechanics, 2(3) (1987).
 R.W. Fry, T.F. Alamin, L.I. Voronov, L.C. Fielding, A.J. Ghanayem, A. Parikh, G. Carandang, B.W. Mcintosh, R.M. Havey, A.G. Patwardhan, Compressive preload reduces segmental flexion instability after progressive destabilization of the lumbar spine, Spine, 39(2) (2014) E74-E81.
 S.M. Renner, R.N. Natarajan, A.G. Patwardhan, R.M. Havey, L.I. Voronov, B.Y. Guo, G.B. Andersson, H.S. An, Novel model to analyze the effect of a large compressive follower pre-load on range of motions in a lumbar spine, Journal of Biomechanics, 40(6) (2007) 1326-1332.
 S. Naserkhaki, J.L. Jaremko, G. Kawchuk, S. Adeeb, M. El-Rich, Investigation of lumbosacral spine anatomical variation effect on load-partitioning under follower load using geometrically personalized finite element model, in: ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2014, pp. V003T003A050-V003T003A050.
 H.-J. Wilke, S. Wolf, L.E. Claes, M. Arand, A. Wiesend, Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups. A biomechanical in vitro study, Spine, 20(2) (1995) 192-198.
 F. Heuer, H. Schmidt, Z. Klezl, L. Claes, H.-J. Wilke, Stepwise reduction of functional spinal structures increase range of motion and change lordosis angle, Journal of biomechanics, 40(2) (2007) 271-280.
 M. Dreischarf, T. Zander, A. Shirazi-Adl, C. Puttlitz, C. Adam, C. Chen, V. Goel, A. Kiapour, Y. Kim, K. Labus, Comparison of eight published static finite element models of the intact lumbar spine: predictive power of models improves when combined together, Journal of biomechanics, 47(8) (2014) 1757-1766.
 K. Sato, S. Kikuchi, T. Yonezawa, In vivo intradiscal pressure measurement in healthy individuals and in patients with ongoing back problems, Spine, 24(23) (1999) 2468.
 P. Brinckmann, H. Grootenboer, Change of disc height, radial disc bulge, and intradiscal pressure from discectomy. An in vitro investigation on human lumbar discs, Spine, 16(6) (1991) 641-646.
 G.B. Andersson, A.B. Schultz, Effects of fluid injection on mechanical properties of intervertebral discs, Journal of biomechanics, 12(6) (1979) 453-458.
 A. Schultz, D. Warwick, M. Berkson, A. Nachemson, Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments—Part I: responses in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 101(1) (1979) 46-52.
 M. Dreischarf, A. Rohlmann, R. Zhu, H. Schmidt, T. Zander, Is it possible to estimate the compressive force in the lumbar spine from intradiscal pressure measurements? A finite element evaluation, Medical engineering & physics, 35(9) (2013) 1385-1390.
 D.C. Wilson, C.A. Niosi, Q.A. Zhu, T.R. Oxland, D.R. Wilson, Accuracy and repeatability of a new method for measuring facet loads in the lumbar spine, Journal of biomechanics, 39(2) (2006) 348-353.
 M. Mimura, M. Panjabi, T. Oxland, J. Crisco, I. Yamamoto, A. Vasavada, Disc degeneration affects the multidirectional flexibility of the lumbar spine, Spine, 19(12) (1994) 1371-1380.
 P. Pollintine, P. Dolan, J.H. Tobias, M.A. Adams, Intervertebral disc degeneration can lead to “stress-shielding” of the anterior vertebral body: a cause of osteoporotic vertebral fracture?, Spine, 29(7) (2004) 774-782.