Investigation of an adsorptive indigo carmine dye removal via packed bed column: Experiments and CFD simulation

Document Type : Research Article


chemical engineering, urmia university of technology, urmia, iran


In this study, the experiments and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations were carried out to determine the removal efficiency of the Indigo Carmine dye from wastewater by the graphene nanostructure. The synthesized graphene was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray Diffraction techniques. A parallel series of fixed-bed column adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves were investigated by varying IC dye solution flow rate (1–10 ml/min), IC dye solution concentration (10–100 ppm), and adsorbent bed depth (10–28 cm). The reusability of adsorbent was studied. The CFD simulation was used for the three-dimensionally simulation of flow patterns and dye concentration profiles inside the packed bed column during the adsorption process. High bed depth, low flow rate, and high initial dye concentration were recommended to be the potential parameters for maximum dye adsorption capacity. The conformity of the experimental test with the CFD calculations was a suitable method to prove the reliability of the dye adsorption process. The removal efficiency of IC dye was achieved to be 67% as flow rate, bed depth, and concentration of 1ml/min, 28 cm, and 10 ppm, respectively. The regeneration tests proved that adsorbent capacity decreased by about 20% after six cycle regeneration.


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