The Effects of Subcooled Temperatures on Transient Pool Boiling of Deionized Water under Atmospheric Pressure

Document Type : Research Article


1 department of mechanical engineering, yazd university

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yazd University

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology


Pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux (CHF) were experimentally studied in subcooled temperatures ranging from 0oC to 20oC and under transient power conditions. A chromealuminum- iron alloy wire was used as the heating element. The heating rate in the test section was increased linearly depending on time by applying voltage control for 1s to 1000s. The transient boiling heat transfer coefficient (TBHTC), transient wire superheat temperature, transient heat flux and transient CHF were also obtained. The results showed that in the case of all subcooled temperatures and periods, the TBHTC increased in the nucleate boiling region because of the growth, separation, motion and turbulence of the bubbles. The TBHTC also decreased in the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling because some part of the wire covered by temporary thin vapor film. The TBHTC again increased in film boiling due to the increment of radiation heat transfer. The TBHTC decreased in the second part of the film boiling due to the heat flux and the vapor film thickness around the wire had increased. Relative to the saturation condition, the timely average of the wire superheat temperature for subcooled temperatures of 10oC and 20oC , respectively, decreased by 9.23% and 9.29% in the nucleate boiling region and in a time period of 1000s.


Main Subjects

[1] A. Ayoobi, A.F. Khorasani, M.R. Tavakoli, M.R. Salimpour, Experimental study of the time period of continued heating rate on the pool boiling characteristics of saturated water, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 137 (2019) 318-327.
[2] R.F. Gaertner, Photographic study of nucleate pool boiling on a horizontal surface, Journal of Heat Transfer, 87(1) (1965) 17-27.
[3] H. Finnemann, O.f.E. Co-operation, Development, Results of LWR core transient benchmarks, in, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1993.
[4] A. Zou, A. Chanana, A. Agrawal, P.C. Wayner Jr, S.C. Maroo, Steady state vapor bubble in pool boiling, Scientific reports, 6 (2016).
[5] S. Jun, J. Kim, S.M. You, H.Y. Kim, Effect of heater orientation on pool boiling heat transfer from sintered copper microporous coating in saturated water, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 103 (2016) 277-284.
[6] J. Wang, F.-C. Li, X.-B. Li, Bubble explosion in pool boiling around a heated wire in surfactant solution, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 99 (2016) 569-575.
[7] G.-Y. Su, M. Bucci, T. McKrell, J. Buongiorno, Transient boiling of water under exponentially escalating heat inputs. Part I: Pool boiling, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 96 (2016) 667-684.
[8] S.D. Park, S.W. Lee, S. Kang, S.M. Kim, I.C. Bang, Pool boiling CHF enhancement by graphene-oxide nanofluid under nuclear coolant chemical environments, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 252 (2012) 184-191.
[9] M. Hursin, T. Downar, PWR control rod ejection analysis with the MOC code decart, in: Joint International Workshop: Nuclear Technology Society–Needs for Next Generation, Berkley, CA, 2008.
[10] M.S. El-Genk, Immersion cooling nucleate boiling of high power computer chips, Energy Conversion and Management, 53(1) (2012) 205-218.
[11] A.F. Ali, M.S. El-Genk, Spreaders for immersion nucleate boiling cooling of a computer chip with a central hot spot, Energy Conversion and Management, 53(1) (2012) 259-267.
[12] Y. Zhang, D. Lu, Z. Wang, X. Fu, Q. Cao, Y. Yang, Experimental investigation on pool-boiling of C-shape heat exchanger bundle used in PRHR HX, Applied Thermal Engineering, 114 (2017) 186-195.
[13] M.W. Rosenthal, An experimental study of transient boiling, Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2(5) (1957) 640-656.
[14] K. Pasamehmetoglu, R. Nelson, F. Gunnerson, Critical heat flux modeling in pool boiling for steady-state and power transients, Journal of Heat Transfer, 112(4) (1990) 1048-1057.
[15] M. Danish, M.K. Al Mesfer, Analytical solution of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer model based on macrolayer, Heat and Mass Transfer, (2017) 1-12.
[16] V.K. Dhir, G.R. Warrier, E. Aktinol, Numerical simulation of pool boiling: a review, Journal of Heat Transfer, 135(6) (2013) 061502.
[17] C. Marcel, A. Clausse, C. Frankiewicz, A. Betz, D. Attinger, Numerical investigation into the effect of surface wettability in pool boiling heat transfer with a stochastic-automata model, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 111 (2017) 657-665.
[18] J.S. Ervin, H. Merte, R. Keller, K. Kirk, Transient pool boiling in microgravity, International journal of heat and mass transfer, 35(3) (1992) 659-674.
[19] A. Pavlenko, E. Tairov, V. Zhukov, A. Levin, A. Tsoi, Investigation of transient processes at liquid boiling under nonstationary heat generation conditions, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 20(4) (2011) 380-406.
[20] H. Auracher, W. Marquardt, Experimental studies of boiling mechanisms in all boiling regimes under steadystate and transient conditions, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 41(7) (2002) 586-598.
[21] J. Park, K. Fukuda, Q. Liu, Critical heat flux phenomena depending on pre-pressurization in transient heat input, in: AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing, 2017, pp. 080005.
[22] M. Shiotsu, Transient Pool Boiling Heat Transfer, Journal of Heat Transfer, 99 (1977) 547.
[23] Y. LI, K. FUKUDA, Q. LIU, Steady and Transient CHF in Subcooled Pool Boiling of Water under Subatmospheric Pressures, Marine engineering: journal of the Japan Institute of Marine Engineering, 52(2) (2017) 245-250.
[24] A. Sakurai, M. Shiotsu, Transient Pool Boiling Heat Transfer—Part 2: Boiling Heat Transfer and Burnout, Journal of heat transfer, 99(4) (1977) 554-560.
[25] V.I. Sharma, J. Buongiorno, T.J. McKrell, L.W. Hu, Experimental investigation of transient critical heat flux of water-based zinc–oxide nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 61 (2013) 425-431.
[26] S.M. Kwark, R. Kumar, G. Moreno, S.M. You, Transient characteristics of pool boiling heat transfer in nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer, 134(5) (2012) 051015.
[27] K. Hata, S. Masuzaki, Influence of heat input waveform on transient critical heat flux of subcooled water flow boiling in a short vertical tube, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 240(2) (2010) 440-452.
[28] F. Tachibana, M. Akiyama, H. Kawamura, Heat transfer and critical heat flux in transient boiling,(i) an experimental study in saturated pool boiling, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 5(3) (1968) 117-126.
[29] K. Derewnicki, Experimental studies of heat transfer and vapour formation in fast transient boiling, International journal of heat and mass transfer, 28(11) (1985) 2085- 2092.
[30] A. Sakurai, M. Shiotsu, K. Hata, K. Fukuda, Photographic study on transitions from non-boiling and nucleate boiling regime to film boiling due to increasing heat inputs in liquid nitrogen and water, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 200(1) (2000) 39-54.
[31] H. Johnson, Transient boiling heat transfer to water, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 14(1) (1971) 67-82.
[32] K. Isao, S. Akimi, S. Akira, Transient boiling heat transfer under forced convection, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 26(4) (1983) 583-595.
[33] A. Sakurai, A. Serizawa, I. Kataoka, M. Shiozu, Transient boiling heat transfer under forced convection, Kyoto Daigaku Genshi Enerugi Kenkyusho Iho, (1978) 16-19.
[34] D.E. Kim, J. Song, H. Kim, Simultaneous observation of dynamics and thermal evolution of irreversible dry spot at critical heat flux in pool boiling, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 99 (2016) 409-424.
[35] R. Visentini, C. Colin, P. Ruyer, Experimental investigation of heat transfer in transient boiling, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 55 (2014) 95- 105.
[36] R.J. Moffat, Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Experimental thermal and fluid science, 1(1) (1988) 3-17.
[37] W.M. Rohsenow, A method of correlating heat transfer data for surface boiling of liquids, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Division of Industrial Cooporation,[1951], 1951.
[38] N. Zuber, Nucleate boiling. The region of isolated bubbles and the similarity with natural convection, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6(1) (1963) 53-78.
[39] M.H. Htet, K. Fukuda, Q. Liu, Transient boiling critical heat flux on horizontal vertically oriented ribbon heater with treated surface condition in pool of water, Mechanical Engineering Journal, 3(3) (2016) 15-00438- 00415-00438.
[40] [40] A. Sakurai, K. Fukuda, Mechanisms of subcooled pool boiling CHFs depending on subcooling, pressure, and test heater configurations and surface conditions in liquids, in: ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2002, pp. 213-225.