Effects of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Low-Velocity Impact Response of Sandwich Plates

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


One method to reduce the damage caused by low-velocity impact in sandwich composites is using nanoparticles as the reinforcement material in the face sheets. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different weights of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties of face sheets and response of sandwich plates that undergo low-velocity impact through experimental investigations. The face sheets are made of nano-modified EPIKOTE 828 with triethylenetetramine as the curing agent, and a core of polyurethane foam. The functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are dispersed into the epoxy system in 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% weight-to-matrix. The low-velocity impact test was performed using a drop tower impact machine, at two different energy levels. The stress-strain, history of contact force, velocity-time, absorbed energy-time and force-deflection are plotted and some parameters such as elastic modulus, tensile strength, bounce time, upward velocity, peak load and maximum deflection are reported. The tensile test results show that with the slight increase in the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes, the elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength are improved. Also, the minor amount of carbon nanotubes reduce bounce time, residual deformation, and maximum deflection and increase peak load in the sandwich plate. In addition, carbon nanotubes reduce the damaged area.


Main Subjects

[1] J. Wang, A.M. Waas, H. Wang, Experimental and numerical study on the low-velocity impact behavior of foam-core sandwich panels, Composite Structures, 96 (2013) 298-311.
[2] L.S. Schadler, S.C. Giannaris, P.M. Ajayan, Load transfer in carbon nanotube epoxy composites, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 73(26) (1998) 3842-3844.
[3] Y. Breton, G. Desarmot, J. Salvetat, S. Delpeux, C. Sinturel, F. Beguin, S. Bonnamy, Mechanical properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites: Influence of network morphology, carbon, 42 (2004) 1027-1030.
[4] A. Montazeri, J. Javadpour, A. Khavandi, A. Tcharkhtchi, A. Mohajeri, Mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites, Materials and Design, 31 (2010) 4202-4208.
[5] J. Zhu, H. Peng, F. Rodriguez‐Macias, J.L. Margrave, V.N. Khabashesku, A.M. Imam, K. Lozano, E.V. Barrera, Reinforcing epoxy polymer composites through covalent integration of functionalized nanotubes, Advanced Functional Materials banner, 14(7) (2004) 643-648.
[6] F. Avila, M. Soares, A. Neto, A study on nanostructured laminated plates behaviour under low-velocity impact loadings, journal of impact engineering, 34 (2007) 28-41.
[7] A.F. Avila, M.G.R. Carvalho, E.C. Dias, D.T.L.d. Cruz, An investigation on nano-structured sandwich panels damage tolerance, in: 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Gramado, RS, Brazil, 2009.
[8] A.F. Avila, M.G.R. Carvalho, E.C. Dias, D.T.L.d. Cruz, Nano-structured sandwich composites response to low-velocity impact, Composite Structures, 92 (2010) 745-751.
[9] M.V. Hosur, A.A. Mohammed, S. Zainuddin, S. Jeelani, Impact performance of nanophased foam core sandwich composites, Materials Science and Engineering A, 498 (2008) 100-109.
[10] M.V. Hosur, A.A. Mohammed, S. Zainuddin, S. Jeelani, Processing of nanoclay filled sandwich composites and their response to low-velocity impact loading, Composite Structures, 82 (2008) 101-116.
[11] M.H. Meybodi, S.S. Samandari, M. Sedighi, An experimental study on low-velocity impact response of nanocomposite beams reinforced with nanoclay, Composite Science and Technology, 13 (2016) 70-78.
[12] K. Iqbal, S.U. Khan, A. Munir, J.K. Kim, Impact damage resistance of CFRP with nanoclay-filled epoxy matrix, Composites Science and Technology, 69 (2009) 1949-1957.
[13] A. Thiagarajan, K. Palaniradja, N. Alagumurthi, Low velocity impact analysis of nanocomposite laminates, International Journal of Nanoscience, 11(3) (2012) 1240008-1240009.
[14] M.V. Hosur, F. Chowdhury, S. Jeelani, Low-velocity impact response and ultrasonic NDE of woven carbon/epoxy nanoclay nanocomposite, Journal of Composite Materials, 41(18) (2007) 2195-2212.
[15] A. Taraghi, F. Fereidoon, B. Taheri, Low-velocity impact response of woven Kevlar/epoxy laminated composites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes at ambient and low temperatures, Materials and Design, 53 (2014) 152-158.
[16] V. Kostopoulos, A. Baltopoulos, P. Karapappas, A. Vavouliotis, A. Paipetis, Impact and after-impact properties of carbon fibre reinforced composites enhanced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes, composite Science and Technology, 70 (2010) 553-563.
[17] E.M. Soliman, M.P. Sheyka, M.R. Taha, Low-velocity impact of thin woven carbon fabric composites incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotubes, international Journal of Impact Engineering, 47 (2012) 39-47.
[18] A.E. Moumen, M. Tarfaoui, K. Lafdi, H. Benyahia, Dynamic properties of carbon nanotubes reinforced carbon fibers/ epoxy textile composites under low velocity impact, composite Part B, 125 (2017) 1-8.
[19] A.E. Moumen, M. Tarfaoui, O. Hassoon, K. Lafdi, H. Benyahia, M. Nachtane, Experimental study and numerical modelling of low velocity impact on laminated composite reinforced with thin film made of carbon nanotubes, Applied Composite Materials, 25(2) (2018) 309-320.
[20] M.A. Bhuiyan, M. Hosur, S. Jeelani, Low-velocity impact response of sandwich composites with nanophased foam core and biaxial (±450) braided face sheets, composite Part B, 40 (2009) 561-571.
[21] K.R. Ramakrishnan, S. Guérard, P. Viot, K. Shankar, Effect of block copolymer nano-reinforcements on the low velocity impact response of sandwich structures, composite Structures, 110 (2014) 174-182.
[22] I. Taraghi, A. Fereidoon, Non-destructive evaluation of damage modes in nanocomposite foam-core sandwich panel subjected to low-velocity impact, Composite Part B, 103 (2016) 51-59.
[23] S. Feli, M.M. Jalilian, Three Dimensional Solution of Low Velocity Impact on Sandwich Panels with Hybrid Nanocomposite Face sheets, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 25 (2018) 579-591.
[24] S.J. Salami, Low velocity impact response of sandwich beams with soft cores and carbon nanotube reinforced face sheets based on Extended High Order Sandwich Panel Theory, Aerospace Science and Technology, 66 (2017) 165-176.
[25] M. Ahmadi, R. Ansari, M.K. Hassanzadeh-Aghdam, Low velocity impact analysis of beams made of short carbon fiber/carbon nanotube-polymer composite: A hierarchical finite element approach, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 0 (2018) 1-11.
[26] M.N. Disfani, S.H. Jafani, Assessment of intertube interactions in diferent functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes incorporated in a phenoxy resin, Polymer Engineering Science, 53 (2013) 168-175.
[27] D. Ratna, S.B. Jagtap, R. Rathor, R.K. Kushwaha, N. Shimpi, S.N. Mishra, A comparative studies on dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes in poli (ethylene oxide) matrix using dicarboxylic acid and amino acid based modifiers, Polymer Composte, 34(6) (2013) 1003-1011.
[28] S. Wang, R. Liang, B. Wang, C. Zhang, Epoxide-terminated carbon nanotubes, carbon, 45(15) (2007) 3042-3059.
[29] J. Qiu, S. Wang, Reaction kinetics of functionalized carbon nanotubes reinforced polymer composites, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 121(1-2) (2010) 295-301.