Numerical Investigation of Water/Al2O3 Nanofluid Dryout Phenomenon in a Vertical Channel

Document Type : Research Article


School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Critical heat flux has been recognized as the upper limit for the safe operation of many cooling systems which may lead to the occurrence of dryout causing a large temperature gradient in the heated wall. One way to increase the amount of the critical heat flux is to put in nanoparticles such as Al2O3 to the base fluid. The current research investigates the nanoparticles effect on dryout phenomenon using computational fluid dynamics. Boiling phenomena are simulated using the mechanistic model organized in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute which is extended to analyze the critical heat flux by partitioning wall heat flux to liquid and vapor phases. It was shown that the dryout phenomenon can be delayed by increasing the nanoparticles concentration, and in certain concentration of nanoparticles (5 percent), dryout would not take place.


[1] Bartolemei, G. G., Chanturiya, V. M., 1969. “Experimental study of true void fraction when boiling subcooled water in vertical tubes”. Teploenergeika 1969, 14(2), pp. 123-
[2] Hoyer, N., “Calculation of dryout and post-dryout heat transfer for tube geometry”. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1998; 24: 319-334.
[3] Krepper, E., Koncar, B., Egorov, Y., 2006. “CFD modeling of subcooled boiling-Concept, validation and application to fuel assembly design”. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V.(FZR) 2006; Institute of safety research, Germany.
[4] Li, H., Vasquez, S. A., Punekar, H., et al. “Prediction of Boiling and Critical Heat Flux Using an Eulerian Multiphase Boiling Model”. Proceedings of the ASME 2010, International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition 2010, canada.
[5] Li, H., Punekar, H., Vasquez, S. A., and Muralikrishnan, R., 2010. “Prediction of Boiling and Critical Heat Flux using an Eulerian Multiphase Boiling Model”. Proceedings of the ASME 2010, International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Colorado,USA.
[6] Corcione, M., “Empirical correlating equations for predicting the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids”. Energy Convers. Manage. 2011; 52(1): 789-793.
[7] Heyhat, M. M., Kowsary, F., Rashidi, A. M., et al. “Experimental investigation of laminar convective heat transfer and pressure dropof water-based Al2O3 nanofluids in fully developed flow regime”. Exp. Therm Fluid Sci 2013; 44: 483–489.
[8] Prajapati, O. S. and Rohatgi, N., 2014. “Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement by using ZnO-Water Nanofluids”. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2014.
[9] Atf A, Rabiee A (2014) Enhancement of two phase flow boiling heat transfer in water/Al2O3 nanofluid, 2nd International Conference of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical, Tehran, Iran, December 2014.
[10] Abedinia E, Zareia T, Rajabniab H, Kalbasic R, Afrandc M. 2017. Numerical investigation of vapor volume fraction in subcooled flow boiling of a nanofluid, Journal of Molecular Liuids, vol.238, pp. 281-289.
[11] Shima, P., Philip, J., and Raj, B., 2009. “Role of microconvection induced by Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the enhanced thermal conductivity of stable nanofluids”. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009; 94 (22), 223101–223101-3.
[12] Evans, W., Fish, J., and Keblinski, P., 2006. “Role of Brownian motion hydrodynamics on nanofluid thermal conductivity”. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006; 88 (9): 093116–093116-3.
[13] Kurul, N., and Podowski, M. Z., 1991. “On the modeling of multidimensional effects in boiling channels”. In: Proceedings of the 27th National Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, July 1991.
[14] Valle, V. H. D., and Kenning, D. B. R., 1985. “Subcooled flow boiling at high heat flux”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 28: 1907-1920.
[15] Cole, R., 1960. “A photographic study of pool boiling in the region of the critical heat flux”. AICHE J.; 6: 533-542.
[16] Lemmert, M., and Chawla, J. M., 1977. “Influence of flow velocity on surface boiling heat transfer coefficient”. Heat Transfer in Boiling, pp. 237-247.
[17] Kocamustafaogullari, G., and Ishii, M., 1995. “Foundation of the interfacial area transport equation and its closure relations”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(3), pp. 481-493,.
[18] Tolubinski, V. I., and Kostanchuk, D. M., 1970. “Vapor bubbles growth rate and heat transfer intensity at subcooled water boiling”. In: 4th International Heat Transfer Conference, Paris, France, 1970.
[19] Kocamustafaogullari, G., and Ishii, M., 1983. “Interfacial area and nucleation site density in boiling systems”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26(9), pp. 1377-1387.
[20] Ioilev, A., et al. “Advances in the modeling of cladding heat transfer and critical heat flux in boiling water reactor fuel assembly”, 2007. NURETH-12, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
[21] Tentner, A., Lo., S., Loilev, A., Melnikov, V., Samigulin, M., Ustinenko, V., Kozlov, V., “Advances in computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor fuel assembly”, 2006. Proceedings of ICONE14, Int. Conf. on Nuclear Engineering, July 17-20, Miami, Florida.
[22] Akbari, M., Galanis, N., Behzadmehr, A., 2012. “Comparative assessment of single and two-phase models for numerical studies of nanofluid turbulent forced convection”. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 37, pp. 136–146.
[23] Rabiee, A., Atf, A. “3-D numerical investigation of water/CuO nanofluid critical heat flux phenomenon in a PWR core channel during LOCA”, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2015
[24] Rabiee, A., Atf, A. “A numerical assessment of copper oxide and alumina nanoparticles during CHF occurrence”, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2015