2019
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Chebyshev Spectral Collocation Method for Flow and Heat Transfer in Magnetohydrodynamic Dissipative Carreau Nanofluid over a Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat Generation
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In this paper, Chebyshev spectral collocation method is used to solve the unsteady twodimensional flow and heat transfer of Carreau nanofluid over a stretching sheet subjected to magnetic field, temperature dependent heat source/sink and viscous dissipation. Similarity transformations are used to reduce the systems of the developed governing partial differential equations to nonlinear third and second orders ordinary differential equations which are solved by the numerical method. Good agreements are established between the results of the present numerical solution and the results of Runge Kutta coupled with shooting method. Using kerosene as the base fluid embedded with the silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles, the effects of pertinent parameters on reduced Nusselt number, flow and heat transfer characteristics of the nanofluid are investigated and discussed. From the results, it is established temperature field and the thermal boundary layers of AgKerosene nanofluid are highly effective when compared with the CuKerosene nanofluid. Heat transfer rate is enhanced by increasing in powerlaw index and unsteadiness parameter. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number can be reduced by magnetic field parameter and they can be enhanced by increasing the aligned angle. Friction factor is depreciated and the rate of heat transfer increases by increasing the Weissenberg number. It is hope that the present work will enhance the study of the flow and heat transfer processes.
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M. G.
Sobamowo
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Mechanical Engineering Department, University
Nigeria
mikegbeminiyi@gmail.com


L. O.
Jayesimi
Works and Physical Planning Department, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Works and Physical Planning Department, University
Nigeria
lawrenceunilag@yahoo.com


M. A.
Waheed
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal
Nigeria
ljayesimi@unilag.edu.ng
Magnetohydrodynamic
Nanofluid
Nonuniform heat source/sink
Carreau fluid
free convection
Chebyshev spectral collocation method
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Further Evaluation of Squeezing Flow and Heat Transfer of nonNewtonian Fluid with Nanoparticles Conveyed through Vertical Parallel Plates
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In this paper, the study of squeezing flow of sodium alginate (SA) a nonNewtonian fluid whose rate of shear is not constant with viscosity flows through a medium transporting nanoparticles of silver (Ag) and Alumina (Al2O3). The flow medium is a flat parallel plate arranged vertically against each other under steady flow condition. As the flow process arising from the mechanics can be described by ordinary nonlinear differential equation, the Adomian decomposition method been an effective, yet simple method is adopted to analyze the nonlinear differential equation. This is used to investigate effect of squeezing flow and heat transfer on the nanofluid. Analytical results reported graphically depicts the effect of squeezing flow on heat transfer utilizing silver nanoparticles shows decreasing temperature distribution for plates coming together while as plates moves apart temperature distribution decreases further. Similar trend is observed adopting the alumina nanoparticle. However the silver nanoparticle having better thermal properties compared with alumina demonstrates higher heat transfer rate due to effect of varying fluid kinematic viscosity on heat exchange. Results generated from the study when compared with existing literature are in good agreement. Therefore study proves a good emphasis for the improvement of sodium alginate transport in biomedical, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing and chemical processes amongst others.
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A. T.
Akinshilo
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Nigeria
ta.akinshilo@gmail.com


A.
Adingwupu
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Igbinedion University Okada, Benin, Nigeria
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College
Nigeria
tonydin@yahoo.com


J.
Olofinkua
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Nigeria
josepholofinkua@yahoo.com
Parallel plates
Sodium alginate
nanoparticles
adomian decomposition method
squeezing flow
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Falahatid, Flow behavior of unsteady incompressible Newtonian fluid flow between two parallel plates via homotopy analysis method, Latin American Journal of Solids and ##structures, 12 (2015) 18591869. ##[7] T.G. Myers, J.P.F. Charprin, M.S. Tshehia, Flow of a variable viscosity fluid between parallel plates with shear heating, Applied Mathematical Modeling, 30 (2006) 799815. ##[8] A. Kargar, M. Akbarzade, Analytical solution of Natural convection Flow of a nonNewtonian between two vertical parallel plates using the Homotopy Perturbation Method, World Applied Sciences Journal, 20 (2012) 14591465. ##[9] M. Hatami, D.D. Ganji, Heat transfer and fluid flow analysis of SATiO2 nonNewtonian nanofluid passing through porous media between two coaxial cylinder, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 188 (2013) 155161. ##[10] M. Hatami, D.D. 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Rokni, Steady nanofluid flow between parallel plates considering thermophoresis and Brownian effects, Journal of King Saud University Science, DOI:10.1016/j.jkus.2015.06.003 ,2015. ##[15] O. Pourmehran, M. RahimiGorji, M. GorjiBandpy, D.D. Ganji, Analytical investigation of squeezing unsteady nanofluid flow between parallel plates by LSM and CM, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54 (2015) 1726. ##[16] A. Mandy, Unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid due to stretching sheet, Nuclear Engineering, 249 (2012) 248255. ##[17] M.A.A. Hamad, I. Pop, M.A.I. Ismail, Magnetic field effects on free convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical semiinfinite plate, Nonlinear Analysis Real World Application, 12 (2011) 13381346. ##[18] G. Domairry, M. Hatami, Squeezing Cuwater nanofluid flow analysis between parallel plates by DTMPade Method, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 188 (2014) 155161. ##[19] A.A. Afify, M. AbdelAzizi, Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of nonNewtonian nanofluid, Pramana Journal of Physics, 31 (2017) 88104. ##[20] M. Sheikholeslami, S. Abelman, Two phase simulation of nanofluid flow and heat transfer in an annulus in the presence of an axial magnetic field, IEEE transaction on nanotechnology,14 (2015) 561566. ##[21] A.G. Madaki, R. Roslan, M. Mohamed, M.G. Kamardan, Analytical solutions of squeezing unsteady nanofluid flow in the presence of thermal radiation, Journal of Computer Science and Computational Mathematics, 6 (2016) 451463. ##[22] A.T. Akinshilo, J.O. Olofinkua, O. Olaye, Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of Sodium Alginate Conveying Copper Nanoparticles between Two Parallel Plates, Journal of applied and computational mechanics,DOI:10.22055/jacm.2017.21514.1105 ,2017. ##[23] U. FilobelloNiño, H. VazquezLeal, K. Boubaker, Y. Khan, A. PerezSesma, A. Sarmiento Reyes, V.M. JimenezFernandez, A. DiazSanchez, A. HerreraMay, J. SanchezOrea K. 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Languri, D.D Ganji,N. Jamshidi, Variational iteration and homotopy perturbation methods for fin efficiency of convective straight fins with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, 5th WSEAS International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, Acapulco, Mexico, 2008. ##[29] A.T. Akinshilo, O. Olaye, On the analysis of the Erying Powell model based fluid flow in a pipe with temperature dependent viscosities and internal heat generation, Journal of King SaudEngineering Sciences, DOI:10.1016/j.ksues.2017.09.001,2017. ##[30] A.T. Akinshilo , O. Olaye, On the Slip Effects for Squeezing MHD Flow of a Casson Fluid between Parallel Disks, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics,DOI:10.22055/JACM.2017.24270.1177,2017. ##[31] W. Hassan, H. Sajjad, S. Humaira, K. Shanila, MHD forced convection flow past a moving boundary surface with prescribed heat flux and radiation, British Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, 21 (2017) 114. ##[32] R.N. Bank, G.C. Dash, Chemical reaction effect on peristaltic motion of micropolar fluid through a porous ##medium with heat absorption the presence of magnetic field, Advances in Applied Science Research, 6 (2015) 2034. ##[33] S.A. Mekonnen, T.D. Negussie, Hall effect and temperature distribution on unsteady micropolar fluid flow in a moving wall, International Journal of Science Basic and Applied Research, 24 (2015) 6075. ##[34] K.S. Mekheir, S.M. Mohammed, Interaction of pulsatile flow on peristaltic motion of magnetomicropolar fluid through porous medium in a flexible channel: Blood flow model, International Journal Pure and Applied Mathematics, 94 (2014) 323339. ##[35] M. Pour, S. Nassab, Numerical investigation of forced laminar convection flow of nanofluid over a backward facing step under bleeding condition, Journal of Mechanics, 28 (2) (2012) 712, doi:10.1017/jmech.2012.45, 2012. ##[36] M. Hatami, D. Jing, Differential transformation method for Newtonian and nonNewtonian nanofluid flow analysis: compared to numerical solution, Alexander Engineering Journal, 55 (2016) 731739. ##[37] Y. Aksoy, M. Pakdermirli, Approximate analytical solutions for flow of a third grade fluid through a parallel plate channel filled with a porous medium, Transport Porous Media, 83 (2010) 375395. ##[38] A.T. Akinshilo, Flow and heat transfer of nanofluid with injection through an expanding or contracting porous channel under magnetic force field, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 21 (2018) 486494. ##[39] A.T. Akinshilo, Steady Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of Third Grade Fluid with Porous Medium and Heat Generation, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 20 (2017) 16021609.##]
Numerical Investigation of Water/Al2O3 Nanofluid Dryout Phenomenon in a Vertical Channel
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Critical heat flux has been recognized as the upper limit for the safe operation of many cooling systems which may lead to the occurrence of dryout causing a large temperature gradient in the heated wall. One way to increase the amount of the critical heat flux is to put in nanoparticles such as Al2O3 to the base fluid. The current research investigates the nanoparticles effect on dryout phenomenon using computational fluid dynamics. Boiling phenomena are simulated using the mechanistic model organized in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute which is extended to analyze the critical heat flux by partitioning wall heat flux to liquid and vapor phases. It was shown that the dryout phenomenon can be delayed by increasing the nanoparticles concentration, and in certain concentration of nanoparticles (5 percent), dryout would not take place.
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A.
Rabiee
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz
Iran
rabiee@shirazu.ac.ir


A.
Atf
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz
Iran
atfalireza@gmail.com
Critical heat flux
Alumina nanoparticle
Dryout
[[1] Bartolemei, G. G., Chanturiya, V. M., 1969. “Experimental study of true void fraction when boiling subcooled water in vertical tubes”. Teploenergeika 1969, 14(2), pp. 123 ##[2] Hoyer, N., “Calculation of dryout and postdryout heat transfer for tube geometry”. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1998; 24: 319334. ##[3] Krepper, E., Koncar, B., Egorov, Y., 2006. “CFD modeling of subcooled boilingConcept, validation and application to fuel assembly design”. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V.(FZR) 2006; Institute of safety research, Germany. ##[4] Li, H., Vasquez, S. A., Punekar, H., et al. “Prediction of Boiling and Critical Heat Flux Using an Eulerian Multiphase Boiling Model”. Proceedings of the ASME 2010, International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition 2010, canada. ##[5] Li, H., Punekar, H., Vasquez, S. A., and Muralikrishnan, R., 2010. “Prediction of Boiling and Critical Heat Flux using an Eulerian Multiphase Boiling Model”. Proceedings of the ASME 2010, International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Colorado,USA. ##[6] Corcione, M., “Empirical correlating equations for predicting the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids”. Energy Convers. Manage. 2011; 52(1): 789793. ##[7] Heyhat, M. M., Kowsary, F., Rashidi, A. M., et al. “Experimental investigation of laminar convective heat transfer and pressure dropof waterbased Al2O3 nanofluids in fully developed flow regime”. Exp. Therm Fluid Sci 2013; 44: 483–489. ##[8] Prajapati, O. S. and Rohatgi, N., 2014. “Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement by using ZnOWater Nanofluids”. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2014. ##[9] Atf A, Rabiee A (2014) Enhancement of two phase flow boiling heat transfer in water/Al2O3 nanofluid, 2nd International Conference of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical, Tehran, Iran, December 2014. ##[10] Abedinia E, Zareia T, Rajabniab H, Kalbasic R, Afrandc M. 2017. Numerical investigation of vapor volume fraction in subcooled flow boiling of a nanofluid, Journal of Molecular Liuids, vol.238, pp. 281289. ##[11] Shima, P., Philip, J., and Raj, B., 2009. “Role of microconvection induced by Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the enhanced thermal conductivity of stable nanofluids”. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009; 94 (22), 223101–2231013. ##[12] Evans, W., Fish, J., and Keblinski, P., 2006. “Role of Brownian motion hydrodynamics on nanofluid thermal conductivity”. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006; 88 (9): 093116–0931163. ##[13] Kurul, N., and Podowski, M. Z., 1991. “On the modeling of multidimensional effects in boiling channels”. In: Proceedings of the 27th National Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, July 1991. ##[14] Valle, V. H. D., and Kenning, D. B. R., 1985. “Subcooled flow boiling at high heat flux”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 28: 19071920. ##[15] Cole, R., 1960. “A photographic study of pool boiling in the region of the critical heat flux”. AICHE J.; 6: 533542. ##[16] Lemmert, M., and Chawla, J. M., 1977. “Influence of flow velocity on surface boiling heat transfer coefficient”. Heat Transfer in Boiling, pp. 237247. ##[17] Kocamustafaogullari, G., and Ishii, M., 1995. “Foundation of the interfacial area transport equation and its closure relations”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(3), pp. 481493,. ##[18] Tolubinski, V. I., and Kostanchuk, D. M., 1970. “Vapor bubbles growth rate and heat transfer intensity at subcooled water boiling”. In: 4th International Heat Transfer Conference, Paris, France, 1970. ##[19] Kocamustafaogullari, G., and Ishii, M., 1983. “Interfacial area and nucleation site density in boiling systems”. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26(9), pp. 13771387. ##[20] Ioilev, A., et al. “Advances in the modeling of cladding heat transfer and critical heat flux in boiling water reactor fuel assembly”, 2007. NURETH12, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. ##[21] Tentner, A., Lo., S., Loilev, A., Melnikov, V., Samigulin, M., Ustinenko, V., Kozlov, V., “Advances in computational fluid dynamics modeling of twophase flow in a boiling water reactor fuel assembly”, 2006. Proceedings of ICONE14, Int. Conf. on Nuclear Engineering, July 1720, Miami, Florida. ##[22] Akbari, M., Galanis, N., Behzadmehr, A., 2012. “Comparative assessment of single and twophase models for numerical studies of nanofluid turbulent forced convection”. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 37, pp. 136–146. ##[23] Rabiee, A., Atf, A. “3D numerical investigation of water/CuO nanofluid critical heat flux phenomenon in a PWR core channel during LOCA”, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2015 ##[24] Rabiee, A., Atf, A. “A numerical assessment of copper oxide and alumina nanoparticles during CHF occurrence”, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2015##]
Effect of Multihole Configuration on Film Cooling Effectiveness
2
2
A numerical study is performed to investigate the effects of shaped multihole on film cooling effectiveness over a flat plate. Hence a single cylindrical film cooling hole with 11.1 mm diameter is replaced with the shaped multihole (14 holes with 2.97 mm diameter) while maintaining constant blowing ratio. Numerical simulations are performed at a fixed density ratio of 1.6, lengthtodiameter of 4 and an inclined angle of 35o. Two configurations of hook and fan shapes are considered for multihole. The controlvolume method with a semiimplicit method for pressure linked equationsconsistent algorithm has been used to solve the steadystate Reynoldsaveraged Navier–Stokes equations. The kε model is applied for modeling the turbulent flow and heat transfer field. It is found that replacing a single hole with the shaped multihole leads to a considerable increase in the film cooling effectiveness in both axial and lateral directions. Results of the present study show that for blowing ratio of 0.6, the hook shape and fan shape configurations of multihole, provide a higher areaaveraged film cooling effectiveness by 48% and 58.2% more than the single hole respectively.
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Y.
Taheri
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran
yaser.taheri@semnan.ac.ir


M.
Rajabi Zargarabadi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran
rajabi@semnan.ac.ir


M.
Jahromi
University Complex of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
University Complex of Aerospace Engineering,
Iran
mjahromi@mut.ac.ir
Film cooling
Multihole
Adiabatic effectiveness
numerical simulation
[[1] Han, J. C., Dutta, S., Ekkad, S., 2013. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology, second ed., Taylor & ##Francis, New York. ##[2] Fric, T. F., Roshko, A., 1974. “Vortical structure in the wake of a transverse jet”. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 279, pp. 147. ##[3] Bidan, G. F., 2013. “Mechanistic analysis and reduced order modeling of forced film cooling flows”. Louisiana State University. ##[4] Asghar, F. H., Hyder, M. J., 2011. “Computational study of film cooling from single and two staggered rows of novel semicircular holes including coolant plenum”. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, pp. 329–334. ##[5] Miao, J. M., Wu, C. Y., 2006. “Numerical approach to hole shape effect on film cooling effectiveness over flat plate including internal impingement cooling chamber”. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49, pp. 919–938. ##[6] Leedom, D. H., Acharya, S., 2008. “Large eddy simulation of film cooling flow field from cylindrical and shaped holes”. ASME Turbo Expo, Paper No. GT200851009, June 9–13, Berlin, Germany. ##[7] Baheri, S., Alavi Tabrizi, S. P., Jubran, B. A., 2008. “Film cooling effectiveness from trenched shaped and compound holes”. Heat and Mass Transfer, 44, pp. 989–998. ##[8] P.H.D thesis, Yiping Lu, 2007. “Effect of hole configurations on film cooling from cylindrical inclined holes for the application to gas turbine blades”. P.H.D thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. ##[9] Laveau, B., Abhari, R. S., 2010. “Influence of flow structure on shaped hole film cooling performance”. ASME Paper, GT23032. ##[10] Gao, Z., Han, J. C., 2009. “Influence of filmhole shape and angle on showerhead film cooling using PSP technique”. Journal of Heat Transfer, 131, pp. 111. ##[11] Feng Zhang, Xinjun Wang, Jun Li, 2016. “The effects of upstream steps with unevenly spanwise distributed height on rectangular hole film cooling performance”. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 102, pp. 1209–1221. ##[12] Abdala, A. M. M., Elwekeel, F. N. M., Huang, D., 2016. “Film cooling effectiveness and flow structures for novel upstream steps”. Applied Thermal Engineering, 105, pp. 397410. ##[13] Ely, M. J., Jubran, B. A., 2008. “A numerical study on increasing film cooling effectiveness through the use of sister holes”. ASME Paper, GT50366. ##[14] Heidmann, J. D., 2008. “A numerical study of AntiVortex film cooling designs at high blowing ratio”. ASME Paper, GT50845. ##[15] Timothy W. Repko, Andrew C. Nix, Can Uysal S., Andrew T. Sisler, 2016. “Flow visualization of multiHole filmCooling flow under varying free stream turbulence levels”. 4, pp. 1329. ##[16] Kuldeep Singh, Premachandran, B., Ravi, M. R., 2017. “Experimental and numerical studies on film cooling with reverse/backward coolant injection”. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 111, pp. 390408. ##[17] Yuzhen Lin, Bo Song, Bin Li and Gaoen Lin, 2006. “Measured film cooling effectiveness of three multihole patterns”. Journal of Heat Transfer, 128, pp. 192197. ##[18] Ai, W., Fletcher, T. H., 2012. “Computational analysis of conjugate heat transfer and particulate deposition on a high pressure turbine vane”. ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, 134, 041020. ##[19] Cunliang, L., Huiren, Z., Zongwei, Z., Duchun, X., 2012. “Experimental investigation on the leading edge film cooling of cylindrical and laidback holes with different hole pitches”. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55, pp. 68326845. ##[20] Yang Chengfenga, Zhang Jingzhou, 2012. “Influence of multihole arrangement on cooling film development”. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 25, pp. 182188. ##[21] Roy, S., 2000. “Numerical investigation of the blade cooling effect generated by multiple jets issuing at an angle into an incompressible horizontal crossflow”. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A 28, pp. 701–718. ##[22] Zhongran Chi, Jing Ren, Hongde Jiang, Shusheng Zang, 2016. “Geometrical optimization and experimental validation of a tripod film cooling hole with asymmetric side holes”. Journal of Heat Transfer, 138, pp. 061701. ##[23] Schmidt, D. L., Sen, B., Bogard, D. G., 1996. “Film cooling with compound angle holes: adiabatic effectiveness”. Journal of Turbomachinery, 118, pp. 807–813. ##[24] Majumdar, S., Rodi, W., Zhu, J., 1992. “Threedimensional finite volume method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries”. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 114, pp. 496–503. ##[25] ANSYS Inc. 2014. ANSYS FLUENT user’s guide, ANSYS FLUENT 16.0.0, Cononsburg, PA, USA. ##[26] Acharya, S., 1999. “Large eddy simulations and turbulence modeling for film cooling”. NACA report, 1999209310. ##[27] Walters, D. K., Leylek, J. H., 2000. “A detailed analysis of filmcooling physics: Part IStreamwise injection with cylindrical holes”. ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, 122, pp. 102–112. ##[28] Leylek, J. H., Zerkle, R. D., 1994. “Discretejet film cooling: a comparison of computational results with experiments”. ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, 113, pp. 358–368. ##[29] Haven, B. A., Kurosaka, M., 1997. “Kidney and antikidney vortices in crossflow jets”. Journal of Fluid Mechanic, 352, pp. 27–64.##]
Experimental Study based Graphene Oxide Nanoplatelets Nanofluid Used in Domestic Application on the Performance of DASCs with Indirect Circulation Systems
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2
Since the solar energy is from the most wellknown and important sources of clean energies, the solutions to absorb solar energy play significant role in the effectiveness of thermal collector system. The present study aims to investigate the experimental analysis of solar volume collector’s performance for usage in domestic solar water heater and using graphene oxide nanoplatelets nanofluid based deionized water. The weight percentage of graphene oxide/deionized water has been chosen with the percentages of 0.005, 0.015 and 0.045, respectively. The used collector has been tested according to the standard of EN 129752 in different temperatures of inlet fluid and in flow rates of 0.0075, 0.015 and 0.225 kg/s. The results of this experiment determine that with the increase of nanofluid’s weight percentage, the collector efficiency is increased and collector efficiency in its highest level in the flow rate of 0.015kg/s and in the weight percentages of 0.005, 0.015 and 0.045 are 63.28, 72.59 and 75.07 respectively, which this amount for the base fluid is 58/25.
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S.
khosrojerdi
Young Researchers’ Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Young Researchers’ Club, Central Tehran
Iran
s.khosro.a@gmail.com


A.M.
Lavasani
Department of Mechanics Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mechanics Engineering, Faculty
Iran
arashlavasani@yahoo.com


S.
Delfani
Electrical and Mechanical Installations Department, Building and Construction Research Institute, Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center, Tehran, Iran
Electrical and Mechanical Installations Department
Iran
delfani@bhrc.ac.ir


M.
Vakili
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University
Iran
cmps2@iust.ac.ir
Direct absorption solar collector
Nanofluids
Graphene oxide Nanoplatelets
EFFICIENCY
[[1] G. Coccia, G. Di Nicola, L. Colla, L. Fedele, M.J.E.C. Scattolini, Management, Adoption of nanofluids in lowenthalpy parabolic trough solar collectors: numerical simulation of the yearly yield, 118 (2016) 306319. ##[2] Z. Said, M. Sabiha, R. Saidur, A. Hepbasli, N. Rahim, S. Mekhilef, T.J.J.o.C.P. Ward, Performance enhancement of a flat plate solar collector using titanium dioxide nanofluid and polyethylene glycol dispersant, 92 (2015) 343353. ##[3] V. Drosou, P. Kosmopoulos, A.J.R.E. Papadopoulos, Solar cooling system using concentrating collectors for office buildings: A case study for Greece, 97 (2016) 697708. ##[4] M. Karamali, M.J.R.E. Khodabandeh, A distributed solar collector field temperature profile control and estimation using inlet oil temperature and radiation estimates based on Iterative Extended Kalman Filter, 101 (2017) 144 155. ##[5] Z. Said, R. Saidur, N.J.J.o.C.P. Rahim, Energy and exergy analysis of a flat plate solar collector using different sizes of aluminium oxide based nanofluid, 133 (2016) 518530. ##[6] M. Nemś, J.J.R.E. Kasperski, Experimental investigation of concentrated solar airheater with internal multiplefin array, 97 (2016) 722730. ##[7] J.A. Duffie, W.A. Beckman, Solar engineering of thermal processes, John Wiley & Sons, 2013. ##[8] J. Ji, J.P. Lu, T.T. Chow, W. He, G.J.A.E. Pei, A sensitivity study of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal waterheating system with natural circulation, 84(2) (2007) 222237. ##[9] P.V.J.T.J.o.P.C.C. Kamat, Meeting the clean energy demand: nanostructure architectures for solar energy conversion, 111(7) (2007) 28342860. ##[10] T.P. Otanicar, J.S.J.E.s. Golden, technology, Comparative environmental and economic analysis of conventional and nanofluid solar hot water technologies, 43(15) (2009) 60826087. ##[11] W. Minkowycz, E.M. Sparrow, J.P. Abraham, Nanoparticle heat transfer and fluid flow, CRC press, 2016. ##[12] S.K. Das, S.U. Choi, W. Yu, T. Pradeep, Nanofluids: science and technology, John Wiley & Sons, 2007. ##[13] A. Beheshti, M. Shanbedi, S.Z.J.J.o.T.A. Heris, Calorimetry, Heat transfer and rheological properties of transformer oiloxidized MWCNT nanofluid, 118(3) (2014) 14511460. ##[14] M. Mehrali, E. Sadeghinezhad, S.T. Latibari, S.N. Kazi, M. Mehrali, M.N.B.M. Zubir, H.S.C.J.N.r.l. Metselaar, Investigation of thermal conductivity and rheological properties of nanofluids containing graphene nanoplatelets, 9(1) (2014) 15. ##[15] R. Mohebbi, M.J.J.o.t.T.I.o.C.E. Rashidi, Numerical simulation of natural convection heat transfer of a nanofluid in an Lshaped enclosure with a heating obstacle, 72 (2017) 7084. ##[16] R. Mohebbi, M. Rashidi, M. Izadi, N.A.C. Sidik, H.W.J.I.J.o.H. Xian, M. Transfer, Forced convection of nanofluids in an extended surfaces channel using lattice Boltzmann method, 117 (2018) 12911303. ##[17] M. Izadi, R. Mohebbi, D. Karimi, M.A.J.C.E. Sheremet, P.P. Intensification, Numerical simulation of natural convection heat transfer inside a┴ shaped cavity filled by a MWCNTFe3O4/water hybrid nanofluids using LBM, 125 (2018) 5666. ##[18] T.P. Otanicar, P.E. Phelan, R.S. Prasher, G. Rosengarten, R.A.J.J.o.r. Taylor, s. energy, Nanofluidbased direct absorption solar collector, 2(3) (2010) 033102. ##[19] R.A. Taylor, P.E. Phelan, T.P. Otanicar, R. Adrian, R.J.N.r.l. Prasher, Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors, 6(1) (2011) 225. ##[20] R. Mohebbi, M. Nazari, M.J.J.o.A.M. Kayhani, T. Physics, Comparative study of forced convection of a powerlaw fluid in a channel with a builtin square cylinder, 57(1) (2016) 5568. ##[21] R. Mohebbi, H.J.I.J.o.M.P.C. Heidari, Lattice Boltzmann simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a parallelplate channel with transverse rectangular cavities, 28(03) (2017) 1750042. ##[22] R. Mohebbi, H. Lakzayi, N.A.C. Sidik, W.M.A.A.J.I.J.o.H. Japar, M. Transfer, Lattice Boltzmann method based study of the heat transfer augmentation associated with Cu/water nanofluid in a channel with surface mounted blocks, 117 (2018) 425435. ##[23] R. Mohebbi, M. Izadi, A.J.J.P.o.F. Chamkha, Heat source location and natural convection in a Cshaped enclosure saturated by a nanofluid, 29(12) (2017) 122009. ##[24] Y. Ma, R. Mohebbi, M. Rashidi, Z.J.P.o.F. Yang, Study of nanofluid forced convection heat transfer in a bent channel by means of lattice Boltzmann method, 30(3) (2018) 032001. ##[25] Y. Ma, R. Mohebbi, M. Rashidi, Z.J.I.J.o.M.P.C. Yang, Numerical simulation of flow over a square cylinder with upstream and downstream circular bar using lattice Boltzmann method, 29(04) (2018) 1850030. ##[26] L. Mu, Q. Zhu, L. Si, Radiative properties of nanofluids and performance of a direct solar absorber using nanofluids, in: ASME 2009 Second International Conference on Micro/Nanoscale Heat and Mass Transfer, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2009, pp. 549553. ##[27] M. Karami, M. AkhavanBahabadi, S. Delfani, M.J.R. Raisee, S.E. Reviews, Experimental investigation of CuO nanofluidbased Direct Absorption Solar Collector for residential applications, 52 (2015) 793801. ##[28] M. Vakili, S. Hosseinalipour, S. Delfani, S. Khosrojerdi, M.J.S.E. Karami, Experimental investigation of graphene nanoplatelets nanofluidbased volumetric solar collector for domestic hot water systems, 131 (2016) 119130. ##[29] R. Shende, R.J.S.E.M. Sundara, S. Cells, Nitrogen doped hybrid carbon based composite dispersed nanofluids as working fluid for lowtemperature direct absorption solar collectors, 140 (2015) 916. ##[30] Z. Said, R. Saidur, N.J.I.C.i.H. Rahim, M. Transfer, Optical properties of metal oxides based nanofluids, 59 (2014) 4654. ##[31] M. Karami, M.A. Bahabadi, S. Delfani, A.J.S.E.M. Ghozatloo, S. Cells, A new application of carbon nanotubes nanofluid as working fluid of lowtemperature direct absorption solar collector, 121 (2014) 114118. ##[32] A. Lenert, Y.S.P. Zuniga, E.N. Wang, Nanofluidbased absorbers for high temperature direct solar collectors, in: 2010 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, pp. 499508. ##[33] E.P. Bandarra Filho, O.S.H. Mendoza, C.L.L. Beicker, A. Menezes, D.J.E.C. Wen, Management, Experimental investigation of a silver nanoparticlebased direct absorption solar thermal system, 84 (2014) 261267. ##[34] M. Vakili, S. Hosseinalipour, S. Delfani, S.J.S.E.M. Khosrojerdi, S. Cells, Photothermal properties of graphene nanoplatelets nanofluid for lowtemperature direct absorption solar collectors, 152 (2016) 187191. ##[35] S. Delfani, M. Karami, M.J.R.E. AkhavanBehabadi, Performance characteristics of a residentialtype direct absorption solar collector using MWCNT nanofluid, 87 (2016) 754764. ##[36] T.B. Gorji, A.J.S.E. Ranjbar, A numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of a lowflux direct absorption solar collector (DASC) using graphite, magnetite and silver nanofluids, 135 (2016) 493505. ##[37] R.C. Shende, S.J.S.E.M. Ramaprabhu, S. Cells, Thermooptical properties of partially unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed nanofluids for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems, 157 (2016) 117125. ##[38] L. Zhang, J. Liu, G. He, Z. Ye, X. Fang, Z.J.S.E.M. Zhang, S. Cells, Radiative properties of ionic liquidbased nanofluids for mediumtohightemperature direct absorption solar collectors, 130 (2014) 521528. ##[39] H.K. Gupta, G.D. Agrawal, J.J.S.E. Mathur, An experimental investigation of a low temperature Al2O3H2O nanofluid based direct absorption solar collector, 118 (2015) 390396. ##[40] H.K. Gupta, G.D. Agrawal, J.J.C.S.i.T.E. Mathur, Investigations for effect of Al2O3–H2O nanofluid flow rate on the efficiency of direct absorption solar collector, 5 (2015) 7078. ##[41] J. Liu, Z. Ye, L. Zhang, X. Fang, Z.J.S.E.M. Zhang, S. Cells, A combined numerical and experimental study on graphene/ionic liquid nanofluid based direct absorption solar collector, 136 (2015) 177186. ##[42] S. Ladjevardi, A. Asnaghi, P. Izadkhast, A.J.S.E. Kashani, Applicability of graphite nanofluids in direct solar energy absorption, 94 (2013) 327334. ##[43] D.A. Vincely, E.J.E.c. Natarajan, management, Experimental investigation of the solar FPC performance using graphene oxide nanofluid under forced circulation, 117 (2016) 111. ##[44] P. Nagarajan, J. Subramani, S. Suyambazhahan, R.J.E.P. Sathyamurthy, Nanofluids for solar collector applications: a review, 61 (2014) 24162434. ##[45] M. Tahani, M. Vakili, S.J.I.C.i.H. Khosrojerdi, M. Transfer, Experimental evaluation and ANN modeling of thermal conductivity of graphene oxide nanoplatelets/deionized water nanofluid, 76 (2016) 358365. ##[46] S.S. Park, N.J.J.R.e. Kim, A study on the characteristics of carbon nanofluid for heat transfer enhancement of heat pipe, 65 (2014) 123129. ##[47] W. Yu, H.J.J.o.n. Xie, A review on nanofluids: preparation, stability mechanisms, and applications, 2012 (2012) 1. ##[48] Z. Said, R. Saidur, M. Sabiha, A. Hepbasli, N.J.J.o.c.p. Rahim, Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated Al2O3 nanofluid, 112 (2016) 39153926. ##[49] B.J.B.B.S.I. EN12975, 2. Thermal solar systems and components solar collectorsPart 2: test methods FS, (2001).##]
New Design and Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Manifold to Control Thermal Gradient
2
2
Optimization and design of new configurations in the field of engineering became faster and more accurate by improving three dimension modeling software and computational fluid dynamics methods. Exhaust manifold of the marine diesel engine, which transfers hot gases from cylinders to the turbocharger, has a problem with extreme thermal gradients and crack creation. In order to improve the heat transfer and prevent crack occurrence at the detected critical points, new configurations in geometrics design for exhaust manifold were studied in this paper. Flow simulation of thermal analysis was performed in ANSYS CFX by using Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute wall boiling model for subcooled boiling at the low pressure. Analysis indicated the single channel configuration, performed by removing outputseparating wall on hot gases side, provide more uniform temperature distribution in the manifold body. Results showed the correct operation of new manifold geometry that reduces the maximum temperature of the body up to 27.36% and controls the extreme (amount of) thermal gradients.
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62


M. R.
Assari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JundiShapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JundiShapur
Iran
mr_assari@yahoo.com


A.
EbnAbbas
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JundiShapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JundiShapur
Iran
amirebneabbas@gmail.com


s.
Adeli
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JundiShapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JundiShapur
Iran
sajjadadeli68@gmail.com
Exhaust manifold
Subcooled boiling
computational fluid dynamics
Crack creation
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute separation model
Water jacket
[[1] J.B. Heywood, O.Z. Welling, Trends in performance characteristics of modern automobile SI and diesel engines, SAE International Journal of Engines, 2(1) (2009) 16501662. ##[2] H. Punekar, S. Das, Numerical simulation of subcooled nucleate boiling in cooling jacket of IC engine, 01487191, SAE Technical Paper, 2013. ##[3] C. Karl, U. Feldhaus, CFD simulation for the cooling circuit of a truck diesel engine, MTZ worldwide, 69(2) (2008) 1219. ##[4] R. Van Basshuysen, U. Spicher, Gasoline engine with direct injection: processes, systems, development, potential, Vieweg+ Teubner, 2009. ##[5] N. Kanawade, O. Siras, Design, analysis, and development of 4cylinder IC engine exhaust manifold, International Engineering Research Journal, (2015) 472478. ##[6] M. Asari, S. Adeli, P. Nikandish, Thermal and fluid flow analysis for diesel engine exhaust manifold with regard to the boiling phenomenon and compare with experimental results, AJSRME, 50(4) (2018) 2130. ##[7] R. Bowring, W. Idsinga, N. Todreas, An assessment of twophase pressure drop correlations for steamwater systems, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 3(5) (1977) 401413. ##[8] M.Z. Podowski, N. Kurul, On the modeling of multidimensional effects in boiling channels, in: 27th National Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 1991. ##[9] A.P. Shingare, N.B. Totla, Simulation of Jacket Cooling of a Liner of Four Cylinder Diesel Engine for Genset Application, International Engineering Research Journal (IERJ), (2016) 2761283,. ##[10] V.A. Romanov, N.A. Khozeniuk, Experience of the diesel engine cooling system simulation, Procedia Engineering, 150 (2016) 490496. ##[11] A. Mohammadi, M. Yaghoubi, Two phase flow simulation for subcooled nucleat boiling heat transfer calculation in water jacket of diesel engine, Journal of Engine Research, (2011). ##[12] A.V. Paratwar, D.B. Hulwan, Surface temperature prediction and thermal analysis of cylinder head in diesel engine, IJERA, 3(4) (2013) 892902. ##[13] E. Chen, Y. Li, X. Cheng, L. Wang, Modeling of lowpressure subcooled boiling flow of water via the homogeneous MUSIG approach, Nuclear Engineering Design, 239(10) (2009) 17331743. ##[14] B. Končar, I. Kljenak, B. Mavko, Modelling of local twophase flow parameters in upward subcooled flow boiling at low pressure, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 47(67) (2004) 14991513. ##[15] ANSYS, ANSYSCFX theory guide  Multiphase Flow Theory, 2006. ##[16] Y. Sato, M. Sadatomi, K. Sekoguchi, Momentum and heat transfer in twophase bubble flow—I. Theory, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 7(2) (1981) 167177. ##[17] M. Ishii, N. Zuber, Drag coefficient and relative velocity in bubbly, droplet or particulate flows, AIChE Journal 25(5) (1979) 843855. ##[18] A. Tomiyama, Struggle with computational bubble dynamics, Multiphase Science Technology, 10(4) (1998) 369405. ##[19] S.P. Antal, R.T. Lahey Jr, J.E. Flaherty, Analysis of phase distribution in fully developed laminar bubbly twophase flow, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 17(5) (1991) 635652. ##[20] E. Krepper, B. Končar, Y. Egorov, CFD modelling of subcooled boiling—concept, validation and application to fuel assembly design, Nuclear Engineering Design, 237(7) (2007) 716731. ##[21] V. Tolubinsky, D. Kostanchuk, Vapour bubbles growth rate and heat transfer intensity at subcooled water boiling, in: International Heat Transfer Conference, Begel House Inc., Paris, France, 1970. ##[22] M.D. Bartel, Experimental investigation of subcooled boiling, Purdue University, WestLafayette, USA, 1999. ##[23] H.C. Ünal, Maximum bubble diameter, maximum bubblegrowth time and bubblegrowth rate during the subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water up to 17.7 MN/m2, 19(6) (1976) 643649. ##[24] O. Zeitoun, M. Shoukri, Bubble behavior and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling, ASME journal of Heat Transfer, 118(1) (1996) 110116. ##[25] V. Prodanovic, D. Fraser, M. Salcudean, Bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling of water at low pressures and low flow rates, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 28(1) (2002) 119. ##[26] W. Fritz, Berechnung des maximalvolumes von dampfblasen, Physik. Zeitschr, 36 (1935) 379384. ##[27] S. Hua, R. Huang, P. Zhou, Numerical investigation of twophase flow characteristics of subcooled boiling in IC engine cooling passages using a new 3D twofluid model, Applied Thermal Engineering, 90 (2015) 648663. ##[28] H.T. Angus, Cast iron: physical and engineering properties, Elsevier, London, 2013.##]
Analytical Solution and Optimization for Energy Harvesting from Nonlinear Vibration of Magneto Electro Elastic Plate
2
2
In the present paper, a mathematical model has been provided for a magnetoelectroelastic plate to investigate its energy harvesting in nonlinear transverse vibration. The nonlinear equations of motion of a magnetoelectroelastic plate have been used based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. These equations have been reduced to an ordinary deferential equations using Airy stress function and Galerkin Method. The equivalent electrical circuit of the structure is developed. A closed form solution has been obtained for the output power of the harvester using the method of multiple scales. The obtained results are compared with those of finite element method and a good agreement observed between the results of displacement and voltage. By introducing an analytical relation for the power as cost function, the Genetic Algorithm method is applied to optimize the best parameters of the harvester which gives the maximum power. The effect of various parameters of the harvester, such as dimension and thickness, on the power is investigated and the results are discussed.
1

63
76


H.
Shorakaei
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, BuAli Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
hamed.shorakaei@gmail.com


A. R.
Shoshtari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, BuAli Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
shooshta@basu.ac.ir


H. R.
Karami
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, BuAli Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
hamidr.karami@gmail.com
nonlinear vibration
plate
smart material
magnetoelectroelastic
optimization
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NanoScaled Plate Free Vibration Analysis by Nonlocal Integral Elasticity Theory
2
2
In the current study, a finite element method is developed using the principle of total potential energy based on nonlocal integral elasticity theory to investigate the free vibration behavior of nanoscaled plates. The classical plate theory is considered for deriving the formulations of the plate. The eigenvalue problem is extracted by using the variational principle and corresponding natural frequencies of free vibration are obtained. Different boundary conditions and various geometries can now be appropriately analyzed by using the nonlocal finite element method proposed in the current article. The results of the current study are compared with those available in the literature. Then the effects of nonlocal parameters, geometrical parameters, various boundary conditions and surface effects on the free vibration behavior of nanoscaled plates are investigated.
1

77
88


H. R
Ovesy
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir
Iran
ovesy@aut.ac.ir


M.
Naghinejad
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir
Iran
m.naghinejad@aut.ac.ir
Nonlocal integral elasticity
finite element method
free vibration
nanoscaled plate
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Matter. 521 (2017) 102–111. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2017.06.058. ##[12] F. Mehralian, Y. Tadi Beni, M. Karimi Zeverdejani, Nonlocal strain gradient theory calibration using molecular dynamics simulation based on small scale vibration of nanotubes, Phys. B Condens. Matter. 514 (2017) 61–69. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2017.03.030. ##[13] Y. Chen, J.D. Lee, A. Eskandarian, Atomistic viewpoint of the applicability of microcontinuum theories, Int. J. Solids Struct. 41 (2004) 2085–2097. doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2003.11.030. ##[14] R.A. Toupin, Elastic materials with couplestresses, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 11 (1962) 385–414. doi:10.1007/BF00253945. ##[15] A.C. Eringen, E.S. Suhubi, Nonlinear theory of simple microelastic solids—I, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 2 (1964) 189–203. doi:10.1016/00207225(64)900047. ##[16] A.C. Eringen, On differential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solutions of screw dislocation and surface waves, J. Appl. Phys. 54 (1983) 4703–4710. doi:10.1063/1.332803. ##[17] S. Kitipornchai, X.Q. He, K.M. Liew, Continuum model for the vibration of multilayered graphene sheets, Phys. Rev. B  Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72 (2005) 1–6. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075443. ##[18] P. Lu, P.Q. Zhang, H.P. Lee, C.M. Wang, J.N. Reddy, Nonlocal elastic plate theories, Proc. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 463 (2007) 3225–3240. doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1903. ##[19] S.C. Pradhan, J.K. Phadikar, Nonlocal elasticity theory for vibration of nanoplates, J. Sound Vib. 325 (2009) 206–223. doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2009.03.007. ##[20] T. Murmu, S.C. Pradhan, Vibration analysis of nanosinglelayered graphene sheets embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal elasticity theory, J. Appl. Phys. 105 (2009). doi:10.1063/1.3091292. ##[21] R. Aghababaei, J.N. Reddy, Nonlocal thirdorder shear deformation plate theory with application to bending and vibration of plates, J. Sound Vib. 326 (2009) 277–289. doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2009.04.044. ##[22] R. Ansari, S. Sahmani, B. Arash, Nonlocal plate model for free vibrations of singlelayered graphene sheets, Phys. Lett. Sect. A Gen. At. Solid State Phys. 375 (2010) 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2010.10.028. ##[23] M. Şimşek, Vibration analysis of a singlewalled carbon nanotube under action of a moving harmonic load based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Phys. E LowDimensional Syst. Nanostructures. 43 (2010) 182–191. doi:10.1016/j.physe.2010.07.003. ##[24] M. Aydogdu, A general nonlocal beam theory: Its application to nanobeam bending, buckling and vibration, Phys. E LowDimensional Syst. Nanostructures. 41 (2009) 1651–1655. doi:10.1016/j.physe.2009.05.014. ##[25] A. Alibeigloo, Free vibration analysis of nanoplate using threedimensional theory of elasticity, Acta Mech. 222 (2011) 149–159. doi:10.1007/s0070701105187. ##[26] A. Alibeigloo, Threedimensional free vibration analysis of multilayered graphene sheets embedded in elastic matrix, J. Vib. Control. 19 (2013) 2357–2371. doi:10.1177/1077546312456056. ##[27] D. Karličić, S. Adhikari, T. Murmu, M. Cajić, Exact closedform solution for nonlocal vibration and biaxial buckling of bonded multinanoplate system, Compos. Part B Eng. 66 (2014) 328–339. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.05.029. ##[28] M. Şimşek, Large amplitude free vibration of nanobeams with various boundary conditions based on the nonlocal elasticity theory, Compos. Part B Eng. 56 (2014) 621–628. ##[29] M. Aydogdu, A nonlocal rod model for axial vibration of doublewalled carbon nanotubes including axial van der Waals force effects, J. Vib. Control. 21 (2015) 3132–3154. doi:10.1177/1077546313518954. ##[30] Z. Zhang, C.M. Wang, N. Challamel, M. Asce, Eringen’s LengthScale Coef fi cients for Vibration and Buckling of Nonlocal Rectangular Plates with Simply Supported Edges, J. Eng. Mech. 141 (2015) 1–10. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EM.19437889.0000838. ##[31] L. Behera, S. Chakraverty, Effect of scaling effect parameters on the vibration characteristics of nanoplates, J. Vib. Control. 22 (2016) 2389–2399. doi:10.1177/1077546314547376. ##[32] F. Mehralian, Y.T. Beni, A Nonlocal Strain Gradient Shell Model for Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Shear Deformable Nanotubes, Int. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 9 (2017) 88–102. ##[33] H. Zeighampour, Y.T. Beni, I. Karimipour, Wave propagation in doublewalled carbon nanotube conveying fluid considering slip boundary condition and shell model based on nonlocal strain gradient theory, Microfluid. Nanofluidics. 21 (2017). doi:10.1007/s1040401719183. ##[34] H. Zeighampour, Y.T. Beni, I. Karimipour, Material length scale and nonlocal effects on the wave propagation of composite laminated cylindrical micro / nanoshells, Eur. Phys. J. Plus. 132 (2017) 1–14. doi:10.1140/epjp/i2017117707. ##[35] H. Zeighampour, Y. Tadi Beni, M. Botshekanan Dehkordi, Wave propagation in viscoelastic thin cylindrical nanoshell resting on a viscoPasternak foundation based on nonlocal strain gradient theory, ThinWalled Struct. 122 (2018) 378–386. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2017.10.037. ##[36] J.K. Phadikar, S.C. Pradhan, Variational formulation and finite element analysis for nonlocal elastic nanobeams and nanoplates, Comput. Mater. Sci. 49 (2010) 492–499. doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2010.05.040. ##[37] C. Polizzotto, Nonlocal elasticity and related variational principles, Int. J. Solids Struct. 38 (2001) 7359–7380. doi:10.1016/S00207683(01)000397. ##[38] A.A. Pisano, A. Sofi, P. Fuschi, Nonlocal integral elasticity: 2D finite element based solutions, Int. J. Solids Struct. 46 (2009) 3836–3849. doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2009.07.009. ##[39] M. Taghizadeh, H.R. Ovesy, S.A.M. Ghannadpour, Beam Buckling Analysis by Nonlocal Integral Elasticity, Int. J. Struct. Stab. Dyn. 16 (2016) 1–19. doi:10.1142/S0219455415500157. ##[40] M. Taghizadeh, H.R. Ovesy, S.A.M. Ghannadpour, Nonlocal integral elasticity analysis of beam bending by using finite element method, Struct. Eng. Mech. 54 (2015) 755–769. doi:10.12989/sem.2015.54.4.755. ##[41] M. Naghinejad, H.R. Ovesy, Free vibration characteristics of nanoscaled beams based on nonlocal integral elasticity theory, J. Vib. Control. 24 (2018) 3974–3988. doi:10.1177/1077546317717867. ##[42] M. Naghinejad, H.R. Ovesy, Viscoelastic free vibration behavior of nanoscaled beams via finite element nonlocal integral elasticity approach, J. Vib. Control. (2018) 1–15. ##[43] D.G.B. Edelen, A.E. Green, N. Laws, Nonlocal continuum mechanics, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 43 (1971) 36–44. doi:10.1007/BF00251544. ##[44] A.C. Eringen, D.G.B. Edelen, On nonlocal elasticity, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 10 (1972) 233–248. doi:10.1016/00207225(72)900390. ##[45] Z.P. Bažant, M. Jirásek, Nonlocal Integral Formulations of Plasticity and Damage: Survey of Progress, J. Eng. Mech. 128 (2002) 1119–1149. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)07339399(2002)128:11(1119). ##[46] M. Karimi, A.R. Shahidi, Nonlocal, refined plate, and surface effects theories used to analyze free vibration of magnetoelectroelastic nanoplates under thermomechanical and shear loadings, Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 123 (2017) 0. doi:10.1007/s0033901708282. ##[47] M. Karimi, H.A. Haddad, A.R. Shahidi, Combining surface effects and nonlocal two variable refined plate theories on the shear/biaxial buckling and vibration of silver nanoplates, Micro Nano Lett. 10 (2015) 276–281. doi:10.1049/mnl.2014.0651. ##[48] M. Karimi, A.R. Shahidi, S. ZiaeiRad, Surface layer and nonlocal parameter effects on the inphase and outofphase natural frequencies of a doublelayer piezoelectric nanoplate under thermoelectromechanical loadings, Microsyst. Technol. (2017). doi:10.1007/s0054201733958. ##[49] M. Karimi, H.R. Mirdamadi, alireza Shahidi, Shear vibration and buckling of double ‑layer orthotropic nanoplates based on RPT resting on elastic foundations by DQM including surface effects, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015. doi:10.1007/s0054201527448. ##[50] M. Karimi, H.R. Mirdamadi, A. Shahidi, Positive and negative surface effects on the buckling and vibration of rectangular nanoplates under biaxial and shear in ‑plane loadings based on nonlocal elasticity theory, J. Brazilian Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. (2016). doi:10.1007/s4043001605956. ##[51] M.H. Shokrani, M. Karimi, M.S. Tehrani, H.R. Mirdamadi, Buckling analysis of doubleorthotropic nanoplates embedded in elastic media based on nonlocal twovariable refined plate theory using the GDQ method, J. Brazilian Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 38 (2016) 2589–2606. doi:10.1007/s4043001503700. ##[52] K.F. Wang, B.L. Wang, A finite element model for the bending and vibration of nanoscale plates with surface effect, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 74 (2013) 22–29. doi:10.1016/j.finel.2013.05.007.##]
Softening Effect in Stretching Stiffness of a Rippled Graphene: Molecular Dynamics Simulation
2
2
In this paper, the stretching stiffness of a rippled graphene is studied using the molecular dynamics simulation. The uneven surface of the rippled graphene is modeled by a random function with different amplitudes and frequencies. Two models of the rippled graphene are simulated. In the first model, it is supposed that the graphene has random wrinkles with different amplitudes and frequencies. It can be regarded as an opened crumpled graphene. In the second model, the uneven surface of the rippled graphene is modeled by the trigonometric sine shapes. The adaptive intermolecular reactive bond order potential function is utilized to model the covalence bonding of the carbon atoms and the NoseHoover thermostat is used to control temperature of the system. It is implemented in the software package large scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator in order to simulate covalent bond formation between carbon atoms in the structure of graphene layer. Results are presented for both zigzag and armchair rippled graphene sheets with different initial surfaces. It is concluded that the failure strain of a rippled graphene under uniaxial tensile loading is less than that of a flat one. It is also demonstrated that the rippled graphene has softening stretching behavior due to its uneven surface.
1

89
94


A.
Hamzei
Faculty of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Iran
amin.hamzei@gmail.com


E.
Jomezadeh
Faculty of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Iran
e.jomehzadeh@kgut.ac.ir


M.
Rezaeizadeh
Faculty of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
Iran
m.rezaeizadeh@kgut.ac.ir
Rippled graphene
Molecular dynamics
stiffness
[[1] K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V Morozov, and D. Jiang, Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon ##Films, Science Magazine, 306(5696) (2004), 666–669. ##[2] K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V Khotkevich, S. V Morozov, and A. K. Geim, Two dimensional atomic crystals, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(30) (2005), 1045110453. ##[3] F. Scarpa, S. Adhikari, and A. Srikantha Phani, Effective elastic mechanical properties of single layer graphene sheets, Nanotechnology, 20(6) (2009), 065709. ##[4] A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, The electronic properties of graphene, Rev. Mod. Phys, 81 (1) (2009) 109162. ##[5] S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, Graphenebased composite materials, Nature 442(7100) (2006), 282286. ##[6] Y. Kim, J. Lee, M. S. Yeom, J. W. Shin, H. Kim, Y. Cui, J. W. Kysar, J. Hone, Y. Jung, S. Jeon, and S. M. Han, Strengthening effect of singleatomiclayer graphene in metalgraphene nanolayered composites, Nat. Commun., 4 (2013) 2114. ##[7] S. Liu and X. Guo, Carbon nanomaterials fieldeffecttransistorbased biosensors, NPG Asia Mater, 4 (2012) e23. ##[8] M. D. Stoller, S. Park, Y. Zhu, J. An, and R. S. Ruoff, Graphenebased ultracapacitors, Nano Lett, 8 (2008) 34983502. ##[9] A. Bianco, K. Kostarelos, and M. Prato, Applications of carbon nanotubes in drug delivery, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 9 (2005) 674679. ##[10] T. CohenKarni, Q. Qing, Q. Li, Y. Fang, and C. M. Lieber, Graphene and nanowire transistors for cellular interfaces and electrical recording, Nano Lett. 10 (2010) 10981102. ##[11] J. C. Meyer, J. C. Meyer, a. K. Geim, a. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. J. Booth, S. Roth, and S. Roth, The structure of suspended graphene sheets, Nature, 446 (2007) 6063. ##[12] M. K. Blees, A. W. Barnard, P. A. Rose, S. P. Roberts, K. L. Mcgill, P. Y. Huang, A. R. Ruyack, J. W. Kevek, B. Kobrin, D. A. Muller, and P. L. Mceuen, Graphene kirigami. Nature, 524 (2015) 204207. ##[13] C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene, Science, 321 (2008) 385388. ##[14] C. D. Reddy, S. Rajendran, and K. M. Liew, Equilibrium configuration and continuum elastic properties of finite sized graphene, Nanotechnology, 17 (2006) 864870. ##[15] S.C. Pradhan, J.K. Phadikar, Small scale effect on vibration of embedded multilayered graphene sheets based on nonlocal continuum models, Phys. Lett. A, 373 (2009) 1062. ##[16] J.L. Tsai and J.F. Tu, Characterizing mechanical properties of graphite using molecular dynamics simulation, Mater. Des, 31 (2010) 194199. ##[17] R. Ansari, B. Motevalli, A. Montazeri, and S. Ajori, Fracture analysis of monolayer graphene sheets with double vacancy defects via MD simulation, Solid State Commun, 151 (2011) 11411146. ##[18] Y. Xiang and H. Shen, Shear buckling of rippled graphene by molecular dynamics simulation, Mater. Today Commun, 3 (2015) 149155. ##[19] A. A. Griffith, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser, The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids, pill. Trance. R Soc. London A, 221 (1921) 163198. ##[20] F. Liu, P. Ming, J. Li, and T. Peierls, Ab initio calculation of ideal strength and phonon instability of graphene under tension, Phys. Rev. B, 76 (2007) 064120. ##[21] M. C. Wang, C. Yan, L. Ma, N. Hu, and M. W. Chen, Effect of defects on fracture strength of graphene sheets, Comput. Mater. Sci, 54 (2012) 236239. ##[22] N. D. Mermin, Crystalline Order in Two Dimensions, Phys. Rev, 176 (1968) 250254. ##[23] A. Fasolino and M. I. Katsnelson, Intrinsic ripples in graphene, Nat. Mater, 6 (2007) 858861. ##[24] W. Bao, F. Miao, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, W. Jang, C. Dames, and C. N. Lau, Controlled ripple texturing of suspended graphene and ultrathin graphite membranes, Nat. Nanotechnol, 4 (2009) 562566. ##[25] G. Tsoukleri, J. Parthenios, K. Papagelis, R. Jalil, A. C. Ferrari, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and C. Galiotis, Subjecting a Graphene Monolayer to Tension and Compression, Small, 5 (2009) 23972402. ##[26] E. Jomehzadeh and N. M. Pugno, Bending stiffening of graphene and other 2D materials via controlled rippling, Compos. Part B Eng, 83 (2015) 194202. ##[27] S. Stuart, A. Tutein, and J. Harrison, A reactive potential for hydrocarbons with intermolecular interactions, J. Chem. Phys, 112 (2000) 64726486. ##[28] S. Plimpton, Fast Parallel Algorithms for ShortRange Molecular Dynamics, J. Comput. Phys, 117 (1995) 119. ##[29] D. W. Brenner, O. a Shenderova, J. a Harrison, S. J. Stuart, B. Ni, and S. B. Sinnott, A secondgeneration reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential energy expression for hydrocarbons, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 14 (2002) 783802. ##[30] W. Hoover, Canonical dynamics: Equilibrium phasespace distributions, Phys. Rev. A, 31 (1985) 16951697. ##[31] M. P. Allen and D. J. Tildesley, Computer Simulation of Liquids, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1989).##]
The Buckling Analysis of Conical Sandwich Shells with Temperature Dependent Properties and an Improved HighOrder Theory
2
2
In this research paper, an improved theory is used for buckling analysis of sandwich truncated conical shells with thick core and thin functionally graded material face sheets and homogeny core and with temperaturedependent properties. Section displacements of the conical core are assumed by cubic functions, and displacements of the functionally graded material face sheets are assumed by firstorder shear displacements theory. The linear variations of temperature are assumed in the through thick. According to a powerlaw and exponential distribution the volume fractions of the constituents of the functionally graded material face sheets are assumed to be tempdependent by a thirdorder and vary continuously through the thickness. In other words to get the strain components, the nonlinear VonKarman method and his relation is used. The equilibrium equations are obtained via minimum potential energy method. Analytical solution for simply supported sandwich conical shells under axial compressive loads and thermal conditions is used by Galerkin’s solution method. Analysing the results show that the critical dimensionless axial loads are affected by the configurations of the constituent materials, compositional profile variations, thermal condition, semivertex angle and the variation of the sandwich geometry. Numerical modeling is made by ABAQUS finite element software. The comparisons show that the present results are in the good and better agreement with the results in the literature and the present finite element modelling.
1

95
106


J.
seidi
Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Iran
jamal_mm@yahoo.com


S.M.R.
Khalili
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K. N.
Iran
k.khalili@kntu.ac.ir
Conical sandwich shells
Functionally graded material
Simply Supported
Buckling
Analytical Solution
[[1] R. Mohammadzadeh, M.M. Najafizadeh, M. Nejati, Buckling of 2DFG Cylindrical Shells under Combined External Pressure and Axial Compression, Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 5(3) (2015) 391 406. ##[2] C.P. Wu, Y.C. Chen, S.T. Peng, Buckling analysis of functionally graded material circular hollow cylinders under combined axial compression and external pressure, ThinWalled Structures, 69 (2013) 5466. ##[3] F. Plantema, Sandwich Construction, New York: Johen Wiley & Inc, (1966). ##[4] Y. Frostig, M. Baruch, O. Vilnay, I. Sheinman, HighOrder Theory for SandwichBeam Behavior with Transversely Flexible Core, 1992. ##[5] E. Bozhevolnya, J. Sun, Free Vibration analysis of Sandwich Beams, Sandwich struct Matter, 6 (2004) 4776. ##[6] Y. Frostig, O.T. Thomsen, Highorder free vibration of sandwich panels with a flexible core, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 41(5) (2004) 16971724. ##[7] G. Schwarts, Y. Frostig, Free Vibrationof Delaminated Unidirectional Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core and General Boundary Conditionsa Highorder Approach  Google Search, J Sandwich Struct Mater, 10 (2008) 99131. ##[8] A. Noor, J. M. Peters, W. Scott Burton, ThreeDimensional Solutions for Initially Stressed Structural Sandwiches, 1994. ##[9] W. Ji, A. Waas, Global and Local Buckling of a Sandwich Beam, 2007. ##[10] W. Ji, A.M. Wass, Elastic analysis of Sandwich Panel Buckl Problem: Benchomark Solutions and Finite Element Formulations, ZAMP, 61 (2010) 897917. ##[11] T. Kant, K. Swaminathan, Analytical solutions for the static analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates based on a higher order refined theory, Composite Structures, 56(4) (2002) 329344. ##[12] A.K. Nayak, R.A. Shenoi, S.S.J. Moy, Dynamic response of composite sandwich plates subjected to initial stresses, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 37(8) (2006) 11891205. ##[13] D. Bushnell, S. Smith, Stress and buckling of nonuniformly heated cylindrical and conical shells, AIAA Journal, 9(12) (1971) 23142321. ##[14] J.B. Dafedar, Y.M. Desai, A.A. Mufti, Stability of sandwich plates by mixed, higherorder analytical formulation, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 40(17) (2003) 45014517. ##[15] M. Koizumi, FGM activities in Japan, Composites Part B: Engineering, 28(1) (1997) 14. ##[16] S. Suresh, A. Mortnsen, Fundementals of Functionally Materials, IOM Communications, London, (1998). ##[17] B. Sankar, J. T. Tzeng, Thermal Stresses in Functionally Graded Beams, 2002. ##[18] N. FIN, Buckling of Conical Shells Subjected to External Lateral Pressure, Trans Roy Inst Technol, Stockholm, 10 (1947) 121. ##[19] K. M. Mushtari, A. V. Sachenkov, Stability of Cylindrical and Conical Shells of Circular Cross Section, with Simultaneous Action of Axial Compression and External Normal Pressure, 1958. ##[20] A.H. Sofiyev, The stability of functionally graded truncated conical shells subjected to aperiodic impulsive loading, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 41(13) (2004) 34113424. ##[21] L.K. Chang, S.Y. Lu, Thermal buckling of conical shells, AIAA Journal, 5(10) (1967) 18771882. ##[22] L.K. Chang, S.Y. Lu, Nonlinear thermal elastic buckling of conical shells, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 7(2) (1968) 159169. ##[23] P.C. Dumir, G.P. Dube, A. Mallick, Axisymmetric static and dynamic buckling of laminated thick truncated conical cap, 2003. ##[24] J. Blachut, O. Ifayefunmi, M. Corfa, Collapse and Buckling of Conical Shells, 2011. ##[25] J. Kim, S.R. Lee, S.S. Park, Analyses of thrust bearings in scroll compressors considering keyways, Tribology International, 43(4) (2010) 728736. ##[26] J. Singer, A. Eckstein, M. Baruch, BUCKLING OF CONICAL SHELLS UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE, TORSION AND AXIAL COMPRESSION, 1962. ##[27] J. Singer, The Effect of Axial Constraint on the Instability of Thin Conical Shells Under External Pressure, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 29(1) (1962) 212214. ##[28] G.A. Thurston, Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Buckling of Conical Shells Under Hydrostatic Pressure, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 32(1) (1965) 208209. ##[29] M. Baroch, Harar, J. Singr, Infuence of inplane Boundary Condition on the Stability of Conical Shells Under Pressure, .Israel J Technol, 5 (1967) 1224. ##[30] M.M. Kheirikhah, S.M.R. Khalili, K. Malekzadeh Fard, Biaxial buckling analysis of softcore composite sandwich plates using improved highorder theory, European Journal of Mechanics  A/Solids, 31(1) (2012) 5466. ##[31] J. seidi, S.M.R. Khalili, Analytical of sandwich truncated conical shell with nano FGM layers in high order theory, Mechanical and Mechatoronic conferene, Tehran. Iran, (2016), (In Persian). ##[32] J. seidi, S.M.R. Khalili, Buckling Analytcal of sandwich truncated conical shell with three order theory, Civil, Electric and Mechanical conferene, Gorgan. Iran, (2014), (In Persian). ##[33] J. seidi, S.M.R. Khalili, Analytcal of sandwich truncated conical shell with soft core and FGM layers in high order theory, Mechanical engineering and Electric conferene, Tehran. Iran, (2015), (In Persian). ##[34] N. I. Karpov, O. A. Karpova, Stability of conical shell under combined load, 1981. ##[35] A.H. Sofiyev, The buckling of FGM truncated conical shells subjected to combined axial tension and hydrostatic pressure, Composite Structures, 92(2) (2010) 488498. ##[36] A.H. Sofiyev, On the buckling of composite conical shells resting on the Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations under combined axial compression and external pressure, Composite Structures, 113 (2014) 208215. ##[37] J.N. Reddy, Thermal Mechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials, Texas, 2(2130) (1998). ##[38] F. Javad, M.H. Hajmohammadi, Study Effect of Geometrical Parameters on the Buckling of Cylindrical Shells under Hydrostatic Pressure, Indian Journal of Science Technology, 6(11) (2013) 55275532. ##[39] B.S. Golzan, H. Showkati, Buckling of thinwalled conical shells under uniform external pressure, ThinWalled Structures, 46(5) (2008) 516529.##]
Optimization of Hot Metal Gas Forming by Taguchi Method for Production Steptubes from AA6063
2
2
The applications of aluminum alloys are limited due to the low formability at ambient temperature. To overcome such limitations, hot metal gas forming is developed as a new process. In this paper, the hot metal gas forming for production of cylindrical step tubes from 6063 aluminum alloy is studied experimentally. For this purpose, Taguchi method of experimental design was used to optimize the process parameters such as axial feed, forming temperature and gas pressure. Seamless tubes with an outer diameter of 25 mm and 1.3 mm thickness were used. After deformation, the specimens were cut and the die filling and thickness distribution were measured. At a constant temperature, with increasing pressure at low axial feed, the specimens burst, while with increasing axial feed at low pressure the specimens were wrinkled. The results indicate that if the axial feed increases in proportion to the pressure, the risk of bursting and wrinkling decreases. The analysis of variance indicated that from the three parameters studied, the effect of axial feeding on filling percentage was of prime importance and the gas pressure and forming temperature were respectively in the second and third rank. The main effects plots for signaltonoise ratio showed that the optimum arrangement of parameters were at 580°C, 0.6 MPa and an axial feed of 14 mm. In this condition, the die filling of 92% and maximum thinning less than 10% were achieved.
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107
112


M.
Rajaee
Advanced Material Forming Research Center, Faculty of Materials and Industrial Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
Advanced Material Forming Research Center,
Iran
mostafa.rajaee@gmail.com


S. J.
Hosseinipour
Advanced Material Forming Research Center, Faculty of Materials and Industrial Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
Advanced Material Forming Research Center,
Iran
j.hosseini@nit.ac.ir


H.
Jamshidi Aval
Advanced Material Forming Research Center, Faculty of Materials and Industrial Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
Advanced Material Forming Research Center,
Iran
h.jamshidi@nit.ac.ir
Hot metal gas forming
Step tubes
AA6063
optimization
Taguchi method
[[1] B. Dykstra, Hot metal gas forming – the next generation process for manufacturing vehicle structural components, SAE Tech Paper, (2001) 2001013088. DOI: https://doi. org/10.4271/2001013088 ##[2] X. Wu, H. Hao, Y. Liu, F. Zhu, J. Jiang, R. Krishnamurthy and S. Wang, Elevated Temperature Formability of Some, SAE Tech Paper, (2001) 2001013103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2001013103 ##[3] M. Keigler, H. Bauer, D. Harrison, A. K. De Silva, Enhancing the formability of aluminum components via temperature controlled hydroforming, J Mater Process Tech, 167 (2005) 363370. ##[4] M. A. Nazzal, F. K. Abu Farha, Finite Element Modeling of Superplastic Forming of Tubular Shapes, Key Eng Mater, 433 (2010) 179184. ##[5] L. Lin, Z. He, S. Yuan, J. Wu. Formability determination of AZ31B tube for IHPF process at elevated temperature, T Nonferr Metal Soc China, 21 (2011) 851856. ##[6] Z He, X. Fan, F. Shao, K. Zheng, Z. Wang, S. Yuan, Formability and microstructure of AA6061 Al alloy tube for hot metal gas forming at elevated temperature, T Nonferr Metal Soc China, 22 (2012) 364369. ##[7] T. Maeno, K. Mori, K. Fujimoto, Hot gas bulging of sealed aluminum alloy tube using resistance heating, Manuf Rev, 1 (2014) 16. ##[8] A. Paula, M. Strano, The influence of process variables on the gas forming and press hardening of steel tubes, J Mater Process Tech, 228 (2016) 160–169. ##[9] A. Paul, M. Werner, R. Tran, D. Landgrebe, Hot metal gas forming of titanium grade 2 bent tubes, AIP Conference Proceedings 1896, 050009 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5008054 ##[10] A. Mosel, J. Lambarri, L. Degenkol, F. Reuther, J.L. Hinojo, J. Robiger, E. Eurich, A. Albert, D. Landgrebe, H. Wenzel, Novel process chain for hot metal gas forming of ferritic stainless steel 1.4509, AIP Conference Proceedings 1960, 160019 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5035045 ##[11] M. Moradi, O. Mehrabi, T. Azdast, K.Y. Benyounis, Enhancement of low power CO2 laser cutting process for injection molded polycarbonate, Optics and Laser Tech 96 (2017) 208–218. ##[12] M. Moradi, A.R. MohazabPak, Statistical Modelling and Optimization of Laser Percussion Microdrilling of Inconel 718 Sheet Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Lasers in Eng 39 (2018) 313–331. ##[13] M.A. Ansari, R.A. Behnagh, M. Narvan, E.S. Naeini, M.K. BesharatiGivi, H. Ding, Optimization of Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) Parameters Through Taguchi Technique, Trans Indian Inst Met, 69 (2016) 1351–1357. ##[14] M. Hajinejad Sorkhi, S. J. Hosseinipour, H. Jamshidi Aval, Formability of 6063 aluminum alloy tube at high Temperature using multibulge test by hot metal gas forming process, Modares Mech Eng, l6 (2016) 185192 (in Persian).##]
Analytical and Experimental Investigation into Increasing Operating Bandwidth of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters
2
2
Piezoelectric cantilevers are mostly used for vibration energy harvesting. Changing the shape of the cantilevers could affect the generated output power and voltage. In this work, vibration energy harvesting via piezoelectric resonant unimorph cantilevers is considered. Moreover, a new design to obtain more wideband piezoelectric energy harvester is suggested. This study also provides a comprehensive analysis of the output voltage relationships and deducing an essential precise rule of thumb to calculate resonance frequency in cantilevertype unimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters using the RayleighRitz method. The analytical formula is then analyzed and verified by experiment on a fabricated prototype. The analytical data was found in an agreement with the experimental results. An important finding is that among all the unimorph tapered cantilever beams with uniform thickness, the triangular cantilever, can lead to highest resonance frequency and by increasing the ratio of the trapezoidal bases, the resonance frequency decreases. It is concluded that the shape can have a significant effect on the output voltage and therefore maximum output power density. Some triangular cantilever energy harvesters can arrange in pizza form using cantilever arrays. This arrangement decreases the occupied space and can lead to increasing the power density and also operating bandwidth.
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113
122


R.
Hosseini
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
r.hosseini.mech@gmail.com


M.
Hamedi
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
m.hamedi@ut.ac.ir


H.
Golparvar
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, K. N. Toosi
Iran
golparvar@kntu.ac.ir


O.
Zargar
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, College
Iran
omidz2012.oz@gmail.com
Vibration energy harvesting
Resonant frequency
Cantilever arrays
Wideband operation
Power density
[[1] M.R. Forouzan, R. Hoseini, Dynamic Analysis of a Modified Truck Chassis, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, 3(4) (2010) 3136. ##[2] R. Hoseini, H. Salehipour, Investigation into the Importance of PreDesign Procedure in Vibration Absorbers Installations, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, 4(1) (2011) 5562. ##[3] R. Hosseini, H. Salehipoor, Optimum design process of vibration absorber via imperialist competitive algorithm, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 12(03) (2012) 1250019. ##[4] R. Hosseini, K. Firoozbakhsh, H. Naseri, Optimal design of a vibration absorber for tremor control of arm in Parkinson’s disease, Journal of Computational and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (JCARME), 3(2) (2014) 8594. ##[5] H. Salehipour, R. Hosseini, K. Firoozbakhsh, Exact 3D solution for free bending vibration of thick FG plates and homogeneous plate coated by a single FG layer on elastic foundations, Journal of Solid Mechanics, 7(1) (2015) 2840. ##[6] R. Hosseini, M. Nouri, Shape design optimization of unimorph piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester, Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics, 47(2) (2016) 247259. ##[7] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, A. Ebrahimi Mamaghani, H.C. Kim, J. Kim, J. Dayou, Parameter identification of partially covered piezoelectric cantilever power scavenger based on the coupled distributed parameter solution, International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials, 8(23) (2017) 110124. ##[8] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, J. Im, J. Kim, J. Dayou, Analytical and experimental investigation of partially covered piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 18(3) (2017) 415424. ##[9] B. Shahriari, O. Zargar, M. Baghani, M. Baniassadi, Free vibration analysis of rotating functionally graded annular disc of variable thickness using generalized differential quadrature method, Scientia Iranica, 25(2) (2018) 728740. ##[10] M. Mohammadsalehi, O. Zargar, M. Baghani, Study of nonuniform viscoelastic nanoplates vibration based on nonlocal firstorder shear deformation theory, Meccanica, 52(45) (2017) 10631077. ##[11] R. Hosseini, O. Zargar, M. Hamedi, Improving Power Density of Piezoelectric VibrationBased Energy Scavengers, Journal of Solid Mechanics Vol, 10(1) (2018) 98109. ##[12] S. Priya, D.J. Inman, Energy harvesting technologies, Springer, 2009. ##[13] N. Elvin, A. Erturk, Advances in energy harvesting methods, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. ##[14] S. Beeby, N. White, Energy harvesting for autonomous systems, Artech House, 2014. ##[15] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, Improvements in energy harvesting capabilities by using different shapes of piezoelectric bimorphs, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 25(12) (2015). ##[16] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, Study of the resonant frequency of unimorph triangular Vshaped piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, 8(4) (2015). ##[17] J. Baker, S. Roundy, P. Wright, Alternative geometries for increasing power density in vibration energy scavenging for wireless sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the Third International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Francisco, 2005. ##[18] M.H. Jalali, O. Zargar, M. Baghani, SizeDependent Vibration Analysis of FG Microbeams in Thermal Environment Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, (2018) 111. ##[19] A.D. Dimarogonas, Vibration for engineers, Prentice Hall, 1996. ##[20] T.A. Anderson, D.W. Sexton, A vibration energy harvesting sensor platform for increased industrial efficiency, in: Smart structures and materials, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006, pp. 61741Y61741Y61749. ##[21] S.P. Beeby, M.J. Tudor, N. White, Energy harvesting vibration sources for microsystems applications, Measurement science and technology, 17(12) (2006) R175. ##[22] A. Erturk, D.J. Inman, A distributed parameter electromechanical model for cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters, Journal of vibration and acoustics, 130(4) (2008) 041002. ##[23] S. Matova, M. Renaud, M. Jambunathan, M. Goedbloed, R. Van Schaijk, Effect of length/width ratio of tapered beams on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters, Smart Materials and Structures, 22(7) (2013) 075015. ##[24] N. Siddiqui, UNDERSTANDING EFFECTS OF TAPERING CANTILEVERED PIEZOELECTRIC BIMORPHS FOR ENERGY HARVESTING FROM VIBRATIONS, (2014). ##[25] A.G. Muthalif, N.D. Nordin, Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 54 (2015) 417426. ##[26] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, An investigation into resonant frequency of trapezoidal Vshaped cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester, Microsystem Technologies, 22(5) (2016) 11271134. ##[27] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, An Investigation into Resonant Frequency of Triangular VShaped Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester, Journal of Solid Mechanics, 8(3) (2016) 560567. ##[28] K. Yang, Z. Li, Y. Jing, D. Chen, T. Ye, Research on the resonant frequency formula of Vshaped cantilevers, in: 2009 4th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, 2009, pp. 5962. ##[29] J. Lubliner, P. Papadopoulos, Introduction to solid mechanics: an integrated approach, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. ##[30] C.W. De Silva, Vibration: fundamentals and practice, CRC press, 2006. ##[31] S.S. Rao, Vibration of continuous systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2007. ##[32] R. Hosseini, M. Hamedi, Resonant frequency of bimorph triangular Vshaped piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester, Journal of Computational & Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (JCARME), 6(1) (2016) 6573. ##[33] A. Erturk, D.J. Inman, Piezoelectric energy harvesting, John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ##[34] O. Zargar, A. Masoumi, A.O. Moghaddam, Investigation and optimization for the dynamical behaviour of the vehicle structure, International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, 14 (2017) 41964210. ##[35] L. Tang, Y. Yang, C.K. Soh, Broadband vibration energy harvesting techniques, in: Advances in energy harvesting methods, Springer, 2013, pp. 1761.##]
The Effect of Road Quality on Integrated Control of Active Suspension and Antilock Braking Systems
2
2
This paper investigates the effect of road quality on the control strategies of active suspension system integrated with antilock braking system in a quartercar vehicle model. To this aim, two optimal control laws for active suspension system and antilock braking system are analytically designed using the responses prediction of a continuous 4 degree of freedom nonlinear vehicle model including longitudinal and vertical dynamics. The optimal feature of the suspension controller provides the possibility of adjusting the weighting factors to meet the ride comfort and road holding criteria on roads with various qualities. It is shown that, regulating the tire deflection in a constant value to increase the tire normal load leads to instability of suspension system. Therefore, the active suspension system cannot influence on the antilock braking system performance on flat roads in a quarter car model. The same effect is observed for hard braking on irregular roads with good quality. In this condition, the active suspension system should be focused on the ride comfort as its first aim. However, for braking on irregular roads with poor quality, decreasing the variation of tire deflection to avoid the tire from jumping is effective in reducing the stopping distance.
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123
135


S.
Aghasizade
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University
Iran
s_aghasizade@sut.ac.ir


M.
Mirzaei
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University
Iran
mirzaei@sut.ac.ir


S.
Rafatnia
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University
Iran
s_rafatnia@sut.ac.ir
Integrated vehicle control
braking system
active suspension system
Optimal control
road quality
Tire jumping
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